JCSN Vol. 40 No 1 2015

THE FUTURE OF PETROLEUM IN NIGERIA AND PROSPECTS OF SHALE OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLIER

 C. Osuji

Department Of Pure And Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Corresponding author:osujileo@yahoo.com;leo.osuji@uniport.edu.ng

Abstract

This paper has reviewed the exigency of exploring the potentials of shale oil and gas as alternative sources of energy in Nigeria. With the discovery of the Mid-Cretaceous oil shale deposits in the Lower Benue Trough and Abakilikli Anticlinorium, the reserves of shale oil in Nigeria provide a substantial potential energy outlook for the country. Through the chemical processes of extraction, isolation, and characterization, the  kerogen of the oil shales has been shown to be of Type I – II (Oil-Prone), and of intermediate thermal maturity status. Further appraisal of the economic potential of the fossil fuel deposits by pyrolysis (modified Fischer Assay), indicated an average oil-yield of more than 42liters tonne-1, which is the lower acceptable threshold for economic exploitation. Therefore,as the revenue from crude oil dwindles, Nigeria should begin to invest in the development of  shale oil and gas without necessarily waiting for the end of the non-renewable hydrocarbon era, estimated on a reserve-to-production ratio of 42 years for crude oil and 152 years for natural gas, at an average of 2.2 million barrels per day.

 

MASS SPECTRA OF SOME TETRACHLOROMETALATE FLUOROQUINOLONES COMPLEXES

1*C. A. Akinremi, 2J. A. Obaleye, 1S. Adewuyi and 1J.F. Adediji

1*Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Ogun state, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin,Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: cakinremi2002@yahoo.com

Abstract

The mass spectra of some previously reported tetrachlorometalate complexes of some fluoroquinolones are studied here. The infrared spectra suggest ionic complexes consisting of a tetrachlorometalate ion which is electrostatically attached to the ligand. The mass spectra of the ionic complexes showed similarity in fragmentations.

 

STUDIES ON EXTRACTION OF Co (II) IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING 1,5-DIMETHYL- 2- PHENYL-4-[(E)-(2,3,4-TRIHYDROXYLPHENYL)DIAZENYL]-1,2-DIHYDRO-3H-PYRAZOL-3-ONE

P.O Ukoha, *N R Ekere and I J Opara

Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

*corresponding author:nwachukwuekere64@gmail.com

Abstract

Solvent extraction studies on Co(II) using 1,5-dimethyl- 2- phenyl-4-[(E)-(2,3,4-trihydroxylphenyl) diazenyl]- 1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (H3L) were carried out using CHCl3 as solvent. The ligand  1,5-dimethyl- 2- phenyl-4-[(E)-(2,3,4-trihydroxylphenyl)diazenyl]- 1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (H3L) and its Co(II) complex were successfully synthesized and authenticated. Stoichiometric studies indicated that the complex formed by Co (II) with H3L  have 2:1 ligand to metal mole ratio. The conductivity test on the ligand and its complex showed that H3L and [Co (H2L)2] are non- electrolytes . Effects of some extraction variables like pH, salting out agents, time and acids were also investigated. Extraction of Co (II) with H3L/CHCl3 was quantitative (91.66%) at pH 10.  Also in 10-3 M H2SO4, Co (II) was   extracted up to 81.2 % within ten minutes. The result showed that the amount extracted decreased with increase in acid concentration.  Na2SO4 and KClO4 proved to be good salting out agents for the extraction of Co (II). The ligand synthesised has high potentials for removal of Co (II) from samples.

 

MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN RAIN WATER COLLECTED FROM INDUSTRIAL AND NON-INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

1T. O. Agbede,  2٭H. Ayedun and 3B. F. Umar

1Ewekoro Training Centre, Larfage Cement Wapco, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemical Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, PMB 353, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria.

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B 50, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria.

٭Corresponding Author: hayedun2000@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many people rely on collected rainwater for consumption and other daily needs because of non-availability or inadequate supply of pipe borne water in most Nigerian semi-urban settlements. A total of 30 rain water samples were collected from industrial and non-industrial areas of Ogun State Southwest Nigeria. The sampling was done during raining season between June – October, 2013. The rain water samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). The values of pH, total dissolved solid (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) varied widely over five months period. The major elements from non-industrial and industrial areas with exceptionally high mean values are  K (1055 ± 464 µgL-1, 1513 ± 1143 µgL-1 ), Mg (339 ± 123 µgL-1, 309±266 µgL-1), Ca (13125 ± 6173 µgL-1, 11375±8641 µgL-1 ) and Fe (72.5 ± 19.2 µgL-1, 225±81.7 µgL-1) are respectively. The percentage of rain water samples collected from industrial areas which contains Cd and Al concentration in excess of WHO limit in drinking water are 16 % and 50 % respectively. The source of metallic elements recorded in rain water collected from the study area are, different roof types as well as atmospheric suspension of particulate matter containing metals. For rainwater to be suitable for human consumption, at least the pH of such water must be known.

 

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING  AND ANTIMICROBIAL  ACTIVITY OF DRIED SEED EXTRACTS OF MARANTHES POLYANDRA

*T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. V. Anyam,  G. Anger and J. N. Anyam

Phytochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:toranyiint@yahoo.com

Abstract

The chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of dried seeds of Maranthespolyandra were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The extracts revealed presence of steroidal triterpenes, cardiac glycosides and trace of alkaloids. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were carried out using broth dilution method. The test organisms were laboratory isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigelladysenteriae, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Microsporumgypseum, Microsporumsp. and Trichophytonrubrum. Ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the highest zone of inhibition (29 mm) against Candida stellatoidea. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts inhibited growth of many tested organisms at concentration of 3.75 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration of other extracts against the test organisms was 15 mg/mL while ethyl acetate was 7.5 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigelladysenteriae, and Candida stellatoidea. This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treatment of various diseases that are caused by these pathogens.

 

NOVEL HETEROCYCLIC DISPERSE DYES WITH THIOPHENE MOIETY FOR DYEING POLYESTER FIBRES

1*O.R.A. Iyun,   2K.A. Bello, 3O. J. Abayeh, 3A. Jauro and 4F.O. Shode

1*Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

3Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

4Department of Chemistry, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Corresponding author: mrsiyun@yahoo.com

Abstract

Ethyl-2-amino-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)carbamoyl]-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxylate and ethyl-2-amino-4-[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)carbamoyl]-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxylate were synthesized by the reaction of sulphur, ethylcyanoacetate with 4-chloroacetoacetanilide and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide  respectively. The highly versatile aminothiophenes obtained were diazotized and coupled with various N-phenylmaleimides in the presence of fused sodium acetate, furnished a series of new monoazo disperse dyes. The dyeing performance of these dyes was assessed on polyester fabric by dyeing with the aid of a carrier and also under reduced pressure. These dyes were found to give yellow, deep pink, brown and brownish purple shades with very good levelness on the polyester fabric. Fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were measured and most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good wash, perspiration, sublimation and rub fastness ratings, however they had poor photostability. The fabrics dyed under pressure showed deeper hue of the colours even after washing.

 

THE POTENTIAL OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA) AS BIOREMEDIATION TOOL OF  HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED SOIL

*H. Akanang and H. M. Adamu

Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. Nigeria

*Corresponding author: aliyumamie@yahoo.com

Abstract

An investigation of the potential of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as a bioremediator was performed to define how it can remove Cr, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Fe in contaminated soil. 3kg of soil samples were separately contaminated with solutions of 2g of FeSO4, CdCO3 and 2g of Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cr metals dissolved in nitric acid, Cowpea seeds were planted into the contaminated soil in polythene bags which were perforated for aeration and watered frequently alongside the control sample. After 14, 28 and 42 days, the plant and soil samples were collected and analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration of Fe in cowpea plant  was found to be the highest after 14 days and 28 days (7.570 ± 0.04 mgkg-1, 12.65 ±0.03 mgkg-1) while amount of  Cd  was the least (0.345±0.01 mgkg-1, 0.73±0.01 mgkg-1 and 0.928±0.02 mgkg-1). This investigation shows that Cowpea plant bioaccumulated Fe more and Cd was less bioaccumulated.

 

         NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL EVALUATION OF PLUKENETIA CONOPHORA                  (NIGERIAN WALNUT) ROOT

*1J. O. Akpoghelie, 2B. O. Ojuh, 2G. C Ugochukwu and 2R.Okoh,

1Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, P. M. B 1, Abraka. Delta State, Nigeria.

2Integrated Science Department, College of Physical Education, Mosogar. Delta State. Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: comradeogaga@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

The nutritional and medicinal evaluation of the Plukenetia conophora (Nigerian Walnut) root was evaluated for its minerals, vitamins and Phytochemical content. Photochemical screening was done by the method described by the AOAC (1980). Minerals such as Ca, Na, K, and Mg were determined by flame photometric method while Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Water soluble vitamin was done by scalar analyzer 2000 while vitamin C is as described by the AOAC (1980). The results from the analysis reveal the presence of bioactive compound in the phytochemical screening. Subsequent quantification of the plant root reveals that Alkaloid, 0.435 mg / g; Tannin, 0.620 mg / g; Phenols, 0.198 mg / g; Saponins, 8.002 mg / g and Oxalates, 0.712 mg/g. Mineral analysis reveals that minerals such as potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na),  Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Cupper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Chromium (Cr) are present in appreciable amount. The vitamin composition of the plant root shows the ascorbic acid content amounting to 2.97 mg / g; Riboflavin (B2), 0.0025 mg / g; Thiamine (B1), 0.0012); Niacin 0.0029 mg / g and Cyanocobalamin (B12) 0.0084 mg / g. This result reveals that the presence of ascorbic acid in the root of Plukenetia conophora imply that the plant can be used in herbal medicine for the treatment of skin condition, including eczema, pruritus among others. Hence, this result proves that Plukenetia conophora root could be potential source of useful drug formulation.

 

ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METAL IN CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUNDS IN OWERRI METROPOLIS, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

1*E. N. Verla, 2M. Horsfall Jnr., 3A.W. Verla and 2A.I. Spiff

1Department of Environmental Technology, School of Environmental Technology Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.1526, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria

2 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B.5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, P.M.B.2000, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Corresponding author: verngo@yahoo.com

Abstract

Children at playgrounds are exposed to contaminants and so attempts to improve children’s environment could reduce environmental burden of illnesses. In order to assess contamination by heavy metals, 36 soil samples were collected from nine public schools within Owerri metropolis.  Using AAnalyst 400 Perkin Elmer (AAS) concentrations of Mn (42.02± 31.16 mg/Kg); Co (6.26± 2.78 mg/Kg); Ni (35.05± 22.89 mg/Kg); Cu (35.42± 13.19 mg/Kg) and Zn (119.62 ± 31.16 mg/Kg) in 2012 and Mn (52.20 ± 29.08 mg/Kg); Co (10.94 ± 7.10 mg/Kg); Ni (32.16 ± 15.26 mg/Kg); Cu (43.85 ± 7.99 mg/Kg) and Zn (103.73 ± 26.82 mg/Kg) for 2013 were determined and data fitted into some models to assess contamination. Contamination factors (Cf) reveal that Central school Owerri, CSO (Cf : 68.45) and World bank primary school, WBP (Cf : 61.53) were the most contaminated sites. Playgrounds had degrees of contamination (Cd) greater than 50, categorized as very high pollution whereas Heavy metal hazard indices (HMHI) were bellow 1, suggesting unlikely multi-element contamination. Due to bioaccumulation and non biodegradability of heavy metals, there is a need for some form of remediation of highly contaminated sites in other to alleviate future possible risk to our children.

 

BENZENE, TOLUENE, ETHYLYBENZENE AND XYLENES (BTEX) CONTAMINATION OF SOILS AND WATER BODIES FROM ALKYD RESIN AND LUBRICANTS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PLANT

P.O Ukoha,  *N.R Ekere,  C.L Timothy  and V.E Agbazue

Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Enugu State, Nigeria

*corresponding author: nwachukwuekere64@gmail.com

Abstract

The levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylybenzene and  Xylenes (BTEX) in spills, effluents, water and soil samples in and   around an alkyd resin and lubricants production factory located in a sub urban area of south eastern Nigeria were determined using gas chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS). Effluents and spills samples were collected inside the factory during production while the soil samples were collected at the waste dumpsite of the factory and 30 m away from the factory situated at Arondizuogu,Imo state, Nigeria. Also water samples were collected from three water bodies know to receive effluents and wastes from the factory. The concentrations of BTEX in the effluents, spills and top soil at waste dumpsite were found to be of the range of 0.03 to 01.50mg/kg (per dm3 for liquid samples). However, the levels of the compounds in all the water samples had concentration below 0.03 mg/dm3and soil samples collected at 30 cm depth and 30 m away from the factory showed concentration below 0.03 mg/kg

 

THE USE OF COCONUT SHELL AS AN ADDITIVE IN NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDING.

*1A.K Akinlabi, 2R. K Quadri, 3I. A. S. Bankole and 4O. K. Koleoso

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.

2Department of Chemical Science, Crescent University, Abeokuta,

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa

4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta

Corresponding author: akakinlabi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Coconut shells were collected and modified by drying in the sun, then milled to fine powder and sieved through a mesh size of 106 µm. Part of  the shells were carbonized while the remaining uncarbonized parts were retained for use. The carbonized and uncarbonized shells were characterized to determine moisture content, ash content, loss on ignition and pH. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was carried out to determine the nature and abundance of the elemental constituents present. The loss on ignition values obtained for carbonized coconut shell (77.40%) were found to be higher than uncarbonized coconut shell (40.45%), which gave an indication of the carbon content in the material. The XRF analysis showed that the carbonized coconut shell (CCS) had higher concentration of carbon (59.0700 wt.%) than the uncarbonized coconut shell (UCS) (30.0301 wt.%). The resulting carbonized and uncarbonized samples were used as additive in the compounding of natural rubber by gradually replacing carbon black with each of these new materials at various ratios of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% of carbon black. The resulting vulcanizates were then subjected to physico-mechanical and solvent resistance tests. The result of the physico-mechanical properties indicated that as the ratio of the coconut shell increases, the physico-mechanical properties decreases. For example, the result of tensile strength (MPa) of CCS at various ratios 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100% were 12.90, 11.24, 10.90, 9.43, 8.54, 7.92 and 7.04 Mpa respectively. The results of the swelling and solubility showed that ethanol swells the vulcanizates more and faster than petrol, which was faster than kerosene and was also faster than diesel. The results obtained showed that vulcanizates with carbonized CS samples have better physico-mechanical properties than the uncarbonized vulcanizates due to higher carbon content. Vulcanizates with carbonized CS samples also show greater resistance to all the solvents as compared to the uncarbonized vulcanizates. Hence, CCS were much better than the UCS, but not as reinforcing as carbon black.

 

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SIMPLE GASES FROM MIE (N-6) POTENTIAL FUNCTION

K O Monago

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P M B 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Corresponding author: ken.monago@uniport.edu.ng 

Abstract

A fourth order virial equation of state was combined with the Mie (n-6) potential function and the triple-dipole term to determine the volumetric and caloric thermodynamic properties of argon in the gas phase. The parameters in the molecular model were determined in a fit to speed of sound data. The equation of state predicted second and third volumetric and acoustic virial coefficients of argon with good accuracy, but failed to predict fourth virial coefficients quantitatively. The equation of state predicted the P-V-T properties of argon with reasonable accuracy up to about six-tenth of the critical density (rc). The (n-6) potential is, therefore, not only superior to the Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential, but can be used to perform exploratory calculations in practical problems.

 

ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SARRACENIN FROM ROOT BARK OF STRYCHNOS SPINOSA.

*T. A. Tor-Anyiin,  J. O. Igoli, J. V.Anyam and J. N.  Anyam

Phytochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:toranyiint@yahoo.com 

Abstract

A known iridoid, Sarracenin, was isolated from the root bark of Strychnos spinosa using Vacuum Liquid Chromatography and gel filteration. Its structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments(DEPTq135, H, H-COSY, HMBC, HSQC and NOESY), and comparison with reported data.  . This is the first time it has been isolated from this species. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans Candida tropicalis, Candida thrusei, and Candida stellatoidea,respectively.

 

SYNTHESIS OF A GREEN DETERGENT FROM CASTOR  SEED [RICINNUS COMMINUS] OIL

1E. V. Ndubuisi, 1J. I. Ugbeh, 2C. C. Iwuorah, 3O.M. Abayeh and *2O.J. Abayeh

1Chemistry Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi. Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

3Industrial Training Fund, TransAmadi Industrial Layout, Port Harcourt. Rivers State

*Corresponding author:oviabayeh@gmail.com

Abstract

This research work reports the synthesis of a green detergent from the biodiesel of castor seed [Ricinnus comminus] oil. The oil was Soxhlet extracted from the castor seed using n-hexane and the oil content calculated on dry matter basis as 38.12%. The saponification value of the oil was found to be 181.152meq/kg, with a golden yellow colour, pleasant smell and viscous feel. The castor oil was subsequently transesterified with eco-friendly ethanol instead of poisonous methanol, using the base (KOH) catalysed process to afford the fatty acid ethyl ester as biodiesel [FAEEs].  The FAEEs was converted to the green detergent by reacting it with conc. sulphuric acid followed by sodium hydroxide. Conventional soap was also produced by reacting the castor oil with NaOH. The following properties pH, foamability, hardness and biodegradability were tested for on the green detergent and soap and compared to detergents “A” and “B” two commercially available detergents in Nigeria as control. The green detergent compared favourably with the controls except in biodegradability where it was better, indicating that an environmental friendly detergent was synthesised from castor seed oil.

 

USE OF CEMENT KILN DUST IN MODIFIED NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATES

1*A.K Akinlabi, 1F. A. Oguntubo, 2O. S. Babajide, 3I. A. S. Bankole, 4O. K. Koleoso, 2O. M. Oyenekan and 2A. S. Arowolo

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Nigeria

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta. Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa. Nigeria

4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta. Nigeria.

Abstract

Rubbers are rarely used in their natural form due to some inherent limitations such as poor resistance to oxidation, ozone and oils. Hence, rubbers are modified with additives such as fillers, accelerators, activators and many more to improve on the limitations. Unmodified cement kiln dust (UMCKD) and modified cement kiln dust (MCKD) were investigated as substitutes to carbon black (CB) due to their availability and cheaper cost to improve the mechanical properties of natural rubber. UMCKD was treated with 1 molar acetic acid solution to acetylate the cement kiln dust and make it a modified cement kiln dust, while natural rubber on the other hand was depolymerized with 0.5 wt % nitrobenzene to obtain 10,616.45 g/mol low molecular weight natural rubber (LMWNR). The UMCKD, MCKD and CB parts were used for compounding and the resultant vulcanizates, Vulca A-UMCKD, Vulca B-MCKD and Vulca C-UMCKD subjected to physical and mechanical tests. The FTIR of the MCKD showed a carbonyl group over the FTIR of the UMCKD while the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis on the UMCKD and MCKD were the same. The results of the tensile strength, elongation at break, abrasion, compression and hardness tests carried out on the vulcanizates were found within the acceptable limit for rubber materials. The XRF analysis showed that the UMCKD has 72.05% concentration of CaO, 15.32% of SiO2 and 6.50% of Al2O3. Tensile strength (MPa) and elongation at break (%) followed the same trend of Vulca A (16.6 MPa& 1000%) ˃ Vulca B (16.5MPa& 900%) ˃ Vulca C (15.65 MPa& 830%) while abrasion test (%) and compression test (%) followed the trend of: Vulca C (100% & 5.5%) ˃ Vulca A (29.74% & 4.17%) ˃ Vulca B (15.46% & 2.63%). Furthermore, hardness test was found to be 50-55 IRHD in Vulca C ˃ Vulca B (45-50 IRHD) ˃ Vulca A (35-40 IRHD). Based on the study, MCKD reinforced natural rubber better than UMCKD but not as reinforcing as CB.

 

RADIONUCLIDES AND TRACE METALS LEVEL IN SOME BENTHOS: A CASE STUDY OF THE BONNY/NEW CALABAR  RIVER ESTUARY.

1*M. C.  Onojake, 2O. Omokheyeke and 2F. D. Sikoki

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, PM B 5323, Choba, Port Harcocurt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2Centre for Marine Pollution Monitoring and Seafood Safety. University of Port Harcourt, PM B 5323, Choba, Port Harcocurt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: mudiaga@uniport.edu.ng

Abstract

 Representative samples of Oyster (Crassostrea gasar); Mullet (Mugil cephalus); and Crabs (Callinectes amnicola) from the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary were collected and analyzed for radionuclides and trace metal content using gamma-ray spectrometer and Atomic Absorption spectroscopy respectively. The gamma absorbed dose rates for Crassostrea gasar (oyster) ranged 0.024 to 0.024 nGy/h, Mugil cephalus (mullet) is 0.035 nGy/h and Callinectes amnicola (crab) between 0.061 and 0.062 nGy/h during the wet and dry seasons respectively. The values recorded in the benthos were below the generic screening value (10µGy/h) stipulated by Radiation Protection of the Environment (PROTECT). Results of chemical analysis shows that the concentrations of the metals varied and the ranges were Ca(31.21­ 37.53 mg/kg), Mg(51.11 ­ 55.89 mg/kg), K(28.56­34.37 mg/kg), Zn(0.24­1.28 mg/kg), Pb(0.23­ 0.30 mg/kg), Cd(0.05­ 0.09 mg/kg), Co(0.20­ 0.28 mg/kg), Cr(1.17 ­ 2.62 mg/kg), Cu(0.45­ 4.89 mg/kg), Fe(23.50 ­ 35.75 mg/kg), Ni(0.06­0.25 mg/kg) and Na(5.67­ 76.09 mg/kg). The rank profile of the trace metals in the benthos investigated according to their mean values were Mg>Ca>K>Fe>Na>Cu>Cr>Zn>Pb>Co>Ni>Cd. The observed concentrations of the trace metals in the benthos were considered to be within WHO permissible limit, environmental surveillance of the Estuary is recommended to achieve a contaminant- free benthos.

 

E-WASTE BURNING: IMPACT ON METAL COMPONENTS OF DUMPSITES AROUND ALABA MARKET, LAGOS, NIGERIA

1,4 *S. O. Alayande, 4A. K. Akinlabi , 1O. AdewaleOmosalewa, 2A. Ofudje, 1G. Ezeh , 1G. Seglo, 3M. Umar  and 1I. Tubosun

1Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Sciences,  McPherson University, Ogun State.

3Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

4 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: gbengaalayande@gmail.com

Abstract

In this study, we consider the impact of burning of e-waste on the soil elemental composition using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Three dumpsites were considered in the study and metal component of the soil samples were studied using X-ray Fluorescence Spec. Statistical analyses of the data obtained from the analytical technique were calculated and Pearson correlation was considered significant at the 0.05level (2-tailed). Some of the metals are positively correlated while some are negatively correlated. The high positive correlation suggests strong affinity among the metals and may indicate possible common sources for the affected elements while the strong negative correlation indicates uncommon source origins for the affected elements likely to be associated with other pollution sources.

 

STUDY OF THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METALS IN WATER AND FISH SAMPLES FROM IMO RIVER AT IHITTE/ UBOMA, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

1*F.C. Ibe, 1V.O. Njoku, and 2C. Johnson

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2Laboratory Services and Environmental Research Dept/UNIDO RAC for Pollution Monitoring and Assessment, Ministry of Environment, Government of Imo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: francispavo@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this study, some heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn) were determined in water and fish samples from Imo River at Ihitte/Uboma. The results obtained indicate that the metal levels in the fish samples were higher than those found in the water samples. The results, compared with international quality guidelines (IAEA), showed elevated values of some of the heavy metals analysed in both water and fish samples. The concentration of Cr in the fish samples was found to have exceeded the tolerable limit as stipulated by IAEA For the water samples, the   concentrations of metal ions obtained are in the order: Fe > Mn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd. For the fish Samples, the concentration of the metal ions are in the order: Cu > Fe > Cr > Mn > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd.

 

PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM ENUGU COAL FOR THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL

1L. E. Aneke and *2U.S.C. Echegi

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu.

*Corresponding author: uscechegi@yahoo.com

Abstract

The bleaching capacities of activated carbons produced from Enugu coal were investigated. Activated charcoal from Coconut shell was used in the bleaching for comparison.  The activated carbon precursors were carbonized prior to activation, with phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and zinc chloride as activating agents. The extent of bleaching was monitored spectrophoto-metrically. The bleaching capacity of the activated carbon was found to be a function of the activation temperature, nature of the activating agent, adsorbent particle size and adsorbent dosage. An optimum activation temperature of 6500C was observed. Activated carbon from phosphoric acid was observed to be most effective in colour reduction followed by zinc chloride and sulphuric acid. It was also established that the essential physical characteristics of the oil were not impaired by the bleaching process.  

 

NUTRITIONAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PEPPER FRUIT (DENNETTIA TRIPETALA).

*F.B. Borokini and O.Y. Ogunyemi

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: borokinif59@yahoo.com

Abstract

The pepper fruit (Dennettia tripetala) used for this study was purchased from a local market in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The proximate and the chemical compositions of the unripe and ripe fruits were assessed with a view to evaluate their level of nutrients and phytochemicals. The proximate compositions of the unripe fruits in g/100g of the dried samples were: moisture content (6.42±0.10), ash content (5.72±0.40), ether extract (4.84±0.40), crude protein (16.85±0.20), crude fibre (14.05±0.08) and carbohydrate (52.12±0.50); the dry matter, nitrogen free extract (NFE), organic matter and the metabolizable energy were: 93.58 ± 0.13, 58.54±0.08, 94.28±0.06 mg/100g and 319.44 kcal/g respectively. The proximate compositions of the ripe fruits in g/100g were: moisture contents (7.82±0.01), ash content (3.98±0.10), ether extract (5.65±0.06), crude protein (14.33±0.10), crude fibre (10.61±0.09) and carbohydrate (57.61±0.80). The dry matter, nitrogen free extract (NFE), organic matter and the metabolizable energy were- 92.18±0.11, 65.435±0.05, 96.02±0.10mg/100 and 338.61 kcal/g. The mineral contents in mg/g for unripe and ripe fruits respectively were – calcium (26.2±0.04, 15.6±0.06), magnesium (6.01±0.06, 5.45±0.10), potassium (35.2±0.07, 39.3±0.05), sodium (11.6±0.05, 9.59±0.04), phosphorus (0.15±0.02, 0. 14±0.01) and sulphur (0.14±0.04, 0.14±0.03). Also detected in the unripe and ripe fruits were Vitamin A (44.24±0.16 and 48.67 ±0.22mg/g ), Vitamin C (6.54±0.12 and 7.64±0.03mg/g), total phenol (1.3±0.03, 1.7±0.02 mg/g) and total flavonoids (0.55±0.02, 0.67±0.01mg/g) respectively. The total titratable acidity obtained for the unripe and ripe fruits were 1.04±0.01 and 0.79±0.02%. The results of the assessment indicated that Dennettia tripetala  has appreciable phytonutrients and could be snacked on for healthy living.

 

ASSESSMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE STARCH PRODUCED FROM SOME LOCAL GRAINS-CORN, SORGHUM AND MILLET

*S. O. Eze and   K. N. Alozie

Department of Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu

PMB 200, Uturu, Abia State- Nigeria

Corresponding author:sundayoeze@yahoo.com

Abstract

Sequel to the increasing need for the local sourcing of raw material for the production and improvement of quality for different types of industrial products, the assessment of pharmaceutical grade starch (PGS) produced through wet milling process of three different botanical sources-Corn (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Panicum miliaceum) was undertaken. The samples were collected from the Eke Okigwe Market, Imo   State, Nigeria, washed to rid them of any inherent impurities such as grit or sand, wet milled with mortar and pestle and water added to form a slurry followed by decantation, sieving , centrifuging, and bleaching. The pH ranges were adjusted with food grade sodium hydroxide (Merck) and deffating was done with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus .The percentage yields of Starch from the samples were 74.0, 69.0 and 63.8 respectively for corn, sorghum and millet. The quality assessment tests showed that corn starch with gelatinization temperature of 68.50-76.00 o C, a pH range of 6.50-8.00, total protein-0.08%, loss on drying-10.00%, and presence of iron-4.00ppm with the absence of foreign matter and sulphur dioxide conformed to the standards set by the International Starch Trading, Denmark. Sorghum and millet were found to have gelatinization temperature ranges of 65.00-75.00 o C and 55.50-65.00 o C, pH ranges-6.50-7.80 and 6.60-8.20, total protein 0.15% and 0.07%, loss on drying 11.00 and 13.00, presence of iron-6.00 ppm and 9.00 ppm  respectively were also of good quality with slight deviations as millet showed the presence of foreign matter and Sorghum has total proteins slightly above the standard. The starch from the three grains can be good sources of pharmaceutical grade starch.

 

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN TOP-SOIL OF SOME RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF KADUNA USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (EDXRF)

1*J. O. Jacob,  1M. M. Ndamitso, 2H. R. Y. Adeyemi,  1A. I. Ajai and 1D. O. Uwuba

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria

* Corresponding author: jacobasol@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study assesses the concentration of some environmentally toxic heavy metals in selected residential areas of Kaduna city using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The study is restricted to the southern areas of the city characterized by high population and industrial activities. Three composite samples of surface soil were collected from each of Barnawa, Narayi and Sabo areas using soil auger within a depth of 0 – 15 cm. Samples were homogenized and subjected to cone and quartering as well as pulverization and sieving, in order to obtain standard particle size for XRF determination of the metal concentrations. The range of mean concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of heavy metals were As (1.0 – 10.7), Pb (467 – 1833), Ni (583 – 753), Cr (267 – 300), Cu (407 – 467) and Zn (31- 320), respectively. The mean concentration of Cd was constant (1.0) for all locations. The mean concentrations of As  and Cd were generally below the WHO/FAO maximum permissive limit while that of Pb, Ni, Cr and Cu were generally above. This calls for concern, especially in the case of Pb which is highly toxic and of no known biological use, as this could pose a potential risk to residents.

 

SYNTHESIS AND ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITIES OF THE SCHIFF BASE N’,E,N”)-N’,N”-BIS(1-PYRIDI-2-YL)ETHYLIDENE)CYCLOHEXANE-1,2-DIAMINE AND ITS ZINC (II) COMPLEX

1*M. S. Salga,  1I. Sada and 2A. Mustapha

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina. 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University Dutse, PMB 7156, Jigawa State

*Corresponding author: salgamohd@yahoo.com

Abstract

The Schiff base ligand (N’,E,N”E)-N’,N”-bis(1-pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine and its Zinc complex was synthesized and characterized by CHN, FTIR, 1H-NMR and UV-visible analysis whereby the structure of the Schiff base was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, showing that the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation with the two imine groups linked at equatorial positions. The two halves of the molecule are related by a crystallographic two fold rotation axis. The dihedral angle between the pyridine rings is 75.73 (3)o. A zinc complex of this ligand was prepared through direct reaction at room temperature. All effort to produce high quality crystals was unsuccessful; however, it shows consistent spectral results with the ligand except in the position of azomethine which may be due to complexation. Both the ligand and its zinc complex were screened and evaluated for anti-ulcer activity against ethanol induced gastric ulceration. The result has shown that, administration of the ligand at the dose of 50 mg/kg markedly decreases the ulcer incidence more than both the Zn-complex and the referenced drug (Omeprazole). This is evident from the manifestation of the flattening of gastric mucosa and the complete absence of lesions in the gastric wall of the ligand treated group and appearance of some few lesions in the zinc and omeprazole groups.

 

NUTRIENT CONTENT EVALUATION OF DERIVED LIQUID AND LYOPHILIZED MILK FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA)

1*E. G. Ilori and 2F. I. Obahiagbon

1Central Analytical Laboratory, Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City.

2Science Laboratory Department, University of Benin, Benin City

*Corresponding: esohe_grc@yahoo.com

Abstract

The end use and product development research of the coconut palm have been on the increase due to its medicinal/nutritional roles and the income accruable from its products This study is aimed at assessing the nutrient composition of derived coconut milk and lyophilized milk from the meat of the two(dwarf green and yellow) varieties of coconut (cocos nucifera), The nutritional composition (Potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese, iron, riboflavin, thiamine, moisture and ascorbic acid)assessment in the products revealed the presence of both micro and macro nutrients which differ significantly (at P < 0.05 levels) between the coconut varieties. The derived coconut milk could serve the purposes of cow milk and other milk products. The lyophilized milk could be rehydrated and used like any liquid milk when desired. Conclusively, the study revealed the presence of the nutrients required for daily healthy living, growth and development of man in the products.

 

GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER COLLOIDAL PARTICLES USING ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L.

1*A . I. Onen, 2J. T. Barminas, 1Y Musa and 1S .T. Magili

1 Department of Chemistry, Adamawa State University, P. M. B 25, Mubi.

2 Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.

Corresponding author: alfredonen@gmail.com

Abstract

Colloidal particles with controlled size and composition are of fundamental and technological interest as they provide solution to many technological and environmental challenges. In this study, an environmentally friendly approach was adopted to synthesize silver colloidal particles using ethanolic extract of A. Conyzoides L. plant. The reaction of the plant extract with a solution of 1mM AgNO3 changed into pale yellow colour due to reduction of silver ions to silver atoms. UV- Visible and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were employed to characterize the colloidal particles. The UV-Visible spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver colloidal particles by exhibiting the typical Surface Plasmon absorption maximum at 420nm from UV-Visible spectra. The results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution may range from 2-100nm. The FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible bio-molecules or functional groups responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the metal colloidal particles synthesized by the extract and the results showed that the synthesized colloidal particles may be surrounded by proteins and metabolites having the functional groups of alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. The results signify that, Ageratum Conyzoides is a potential medicinal plant which may be used for the synthesis of silver colloidal particles.

 

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: ACID-PRECIPITATION OF LEAD FROM ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1J. N. Afiukwa,  2J. C. Agunwamba and *3O. C. Eneh

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

3Institute for Development Studies, Enugu Campus, Univerity of Nigeria, Nsukka

*Corresponding author: onyenekena.eneh@unn.edu.ng

Abstract

Poverty and ignorance underlies the demand for inferior information communications technology (ICT) products in developing countries in Africa. These inferior or obsolete electrical and electronic materials including computers damage shortly and are dumped as wastes on agricultural soils and on water ways. Lead (Pb) contained in some of these materials can pollute water through leaching or absorbed by crops and plants. Lead is one of the major health risks and hazardous chemical components of WEEE found mainly in the cathode-ray tube of personal computers and as solders in other electronic appliances. The solder parts of this waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) were sorted and recycled by acid-precipitation to recover the metallic lead. Lead-containing powdered WEEE was dissolved in dilute trioxonitrate(V)acid (HNO3) and by heating a solution of lead(II)trioxonitrate(V) produced, the insoluble lead(II) oxide (PbO) precipitated was further reduced by carbonation to solid metallic lead. This study was an attempt to recover lead from e-waste with a view to minimising environmental and health risks associated with lead toxicities. It is recommended that users should be encouraged to deposit WEEE from homes, markets and offices in designated locations for easy collection. There is also the need for functional Electrical-Electronic Equipment Policy Framework that incorporates WEEE disposal to ensure strict compliance of all manufacturers and users of the products.

 

FATTY ACID AND AMINO ACID COMPOSITIONS OF PILI FRUIT (CANARIUM OVATUM) KERNEL

*M.N. Ogbuagu and U.V. Chukuka

Department Of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture, Umudike

P.M.B. 7267 Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria.

Corresponding author : marc.ogbuagu@gmail.com

Abstract

The pili fruit kernel, an under-utilized tropical African fruit kernel, was analyzed for its fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The result revealed a total unsaturated fatty acid composition of 69.45% and a total saturated fatty acid composition of 30.54% and with oleic acid (40.72 %) as the predominant unsaturated fatty acid and palmitic acid (25.76%) as the predominant saturated fatty acid. The result revealed a peroxide value of 9.4 + 0.02, iodine value of 54.12+ 0.26 and a saponification number of 132.81+ 0.33 of the oil. The result also revealed a total composition of 17 amino acids (excluding tryptophan) and with glutamic acid (10.61g/100g protein) and aspartic acid (8.66g/100g protein) as the predominant amino acids and cystine (0.99g/100g protein) as the most deficient amino acid. The total amino acid composition was 74.63g/100g protein and made up of 31.96g/100g of the essential amino acids (excluding tryptophan). This value represents 43.45% of the total amino acid composition of the pili kernel protein. The essential amino acids: lysine (5.10%), methionine+cystine (2.03%) and threonine (3.11%) were noted to have slightly lower but comparable values with their respective reference standard values. Valine (4.36%), leucine (6.81%), isoleucine (3.36%) and phenyalanine+tyrosine (7.19%) were noted to have higher values than their respective reference standard values. Thus, pili kernel can serve as a good source of essential fatty acids and amino acids to consumers.

 

ANTISICKLING ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT FROM PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA

1*A G. Suleiman, 2S. Y. Mudi, 3G. Ahmad and 3M. Muktar

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Jigawa State University, Kafin Hausa, Nigeria.

2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

3Department of General Studies, Binyaminu Usman College of Agriculture, Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: saghadejia@gmail.com,

 

 

Abstract

This work highlights the screening of the extract from Phoenix dactylifera for its anti-sickling property and phytochemicals as an alternative, cheaper and less toxic therapy for sickle cell disease management. Soft dates were bought from Hadejia Central Market and the flesh was dried under the shade for three weeks. The powdered plant was peculated with solvents of increasing polarity viz n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water to obtain different fractions. The phytochemical screening of these fractions revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, sopannins and tannins. The plant fractions were then evaluated against sickle cell using p-hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline as positive and negative controls. The method involved inhibition of sodium metabisulphite induced sickling of HbSS red blood cell collected from sickle cell patient. The fraction DP1 (5mg/ml) and  DP1-2 (5mg/ml) showed antisickling activities of 78.7%, and 79.0% at 180min incubation compared to p-hydroxybenzoic acid(5mg/ml) with 71.1% at 180min time of incubation and DP2 (5mg/ml) inhibited formation of sickle cell from 16-3% at 40min incubation compared to untreated SS suspension with  over 31.5%. These results show the fruit of date palm plant as a good candidate for sickle cell disease therapy.     

 

ELEMENTAL, PROXIMATE AND AMINO ACID CONTENTS ANALYSES OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES LINN

1*A.M. Lohdip, 2A. O.Oyewale and 3J. C. Aguiyi

1Department of Chemistry and 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos,

Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: aminalohdip@yahoo.com

Abstract

The mineral contents of the leaves, stems and roots of Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linn) were determined using a Pye Unicam 969 Atomic Absorption spectrometer (AAS) for the metals and qualitative analyses including sodium fusion test, for the non-metals. AAS revealed the presence of K, Na, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd in the three parts of the plant, while Ag and Ni were detected only in the leaves; Co was not detected in any of the parts. The qualitative analyses revealed the presence of N, P and Cl in the three parts, while other halogens and S were absent. Proximate analysis revealed various percentages of the proximate fractions in the different parts of the plant. % ash, crude fats, crude protein and moisture contents were in the following order: leaves > roots > stems; crude fiber content was stems > roots > leaves; while total carbohydrate and reducing sugars were roots > leaves > stems. The amino acid contents analysis revealed various percentages of essential amino acids in the three parts of the plant.

 

EPOXIDATION POTENTIAL OF SANDBOX (Hura crepitans) SEED OIL AS BASE MATERIAL FOR OIL PAINT

O. Eromosele, *A. A. Lasisi and  O. O. Afuwape

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: E-mail:  lasialiyu@yahoo.com

Abstract

Epoxidized Hura crepitans seed oil (EHCSO) and alkyd resins derived from Hura crepitans seed oil (HCSO) are investigated to establish their potential as base material for oil paints. Rate of epoxidation were found to increase at 50, 60 and 70 oC. Highest % of oxirane – oxygen content (3.9%) was achieved at 3 h and 60 oC. Optimum condition for epoxidation of HCSO were obtained at 0.32 (mole ratio of acetic acid to oil) and 0.42 (mole ratio of H2O2 to oil). Epoxidation reaction was monitored by infra red spectrometry. Three grades of alkyd resins formulated at 40%, 50% and 60% oil length exhibited iodine values of 53.06 ± 0.04, 63.7 ± 0.03 and 75.78 ± 0.03 g/100 g respectively and saponification values of 411.68 ± 0.57, 462.18 ± 0.82 and 481.34 ± 0.15 mg KOH g-1 respectively. The results of chemical properties and performance characteristics of the alkyd resin indicated that EHCSO demonstrated good potential for surface coating formulation, based on drying properties of its alkyd films.

 

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