JCSN Vol 38 No 2 2013

STUDIES ON THE REMOVAL OF METAL IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING IMMOBILIZED BOMBAX COSTATUM CALYX (BOMBACASEACE)

1S.A.Osemeahon, 1J.T. Barminas and 2M.A. Hamma Adama

1Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076, Yola Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education PMB 2042, Yola Nigeria

Corresponding author:sundayosemeahon@yahoo.com

Abstract

The sorption capacity of Immobilized Bombax costatum calyx (IBCC) for the removal of metal ions (Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ ) were studied using batch experiments. The residual metal ion concentrations were investigated using AAS. The influence of factors such as contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, pH and temperature were investigated. The metal ion sorption capacity by IBCC decreased with increasing ionic strength but increases with increasing pH values and initial metal ion concentration. The sorption rate for the metal ions was rapid for the first 30 minutes and equilibrium was established within 2 hrs. The maximum sorption capacity for Fe3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, and Zn2+ were found to be 98.65, 96.36, 90.57, 84.38 and 80.28 respectively. From the experimental work on the sorption capacity of IBCC sorbent, our result showed that the abundantly wasted Bombax Costatum calyx could be turned into an environmentally friendly, and cost effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from waste water.  

 

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NORUST CR 486™ (CORROSION INHIBITOR) ON FRESH AND BRACKISH WATER CICHLIDS: TILAPIA GUINEENSIS

1*D. F Ogeleka,  2L. I. N Ezemonye and 3F.E Okieimen.

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, P.M.B.1221, Delta State, Nigeria.

2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology (AEB) University of Benin,

3Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: dorysafam@yahoo.com

Abstract

Short-term toxic effects of uncontrolled release / discharge of Norust CR 486 into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria were investigated using laboratory toxicity test. Tilapia guineensis (fish) were exposed to Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/l for 96 h. The mean % mortality obtained from the study resulted in adverse effects on most of the test organisms. The estimated lethal concentration (LC50) obtained using the Finney Probit analysis revealed that the test chemical was slightly toxic to the test organisms based on the Group of Expert on Scientific Aspect of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) rating. Although, the LC50 observed between the fresh and brackish water test were not significantly different, there was statistical significance between mortality in the Norust CR 486 experiment and the control treatments at levels of p < 0.05. The observed mortality effects in the test concentration are possible indications of early warning signs of water quality deterioration and ecological effects on these economically viable species. This effect could possibly lead to a high distortion and imbalance of the aquatic ecosystem.

 

REMEDIATION STUDIES OF HERBICIDE RESIDUES AND ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (OPs) IN SOME WATER BODIES OF PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA

1J. S. Gushit, 2E. O. Ekanem,  2H. M. Adamu and 2O. J. Abayeh

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

2Chemistry Programme, ATBU Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: johngushit@yahoo.com

Abstract        

A monitoring study of herbicide residues and other organic pollutants in water bodies widely used for active agricultural activities such as irrigation was carried out for two years covering different farming seasons (dry and rainy) from June 2010 to June 2012. Based on the agricultural uses of the water, an average of five (5) sampling points were set up along or within each of the water bodies which include; dam, stream, river, and well water within the study area. The samples were collected, stored, extracted using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The common herbicide residues detected are; atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 4,4-bypridine, oxadiazon and benzene dicarboxylic acid esters. In terms of organic priority pollutants, the percentage (%) occurrence of organochlorine, benzene amine, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate, phenol and others discovered in the study are; 14.30, 9.72, 9.72, 34.31, 5.72 and 22.84 respectively. The distribution of these pollutants in the water bodies were observed during and beyond the farming seasons, giving an indication of non-acceptable risk as they may be absorbed in crops or taken when such waters are directly drank. Atrazine was identified as one of the most recurrent and dominant residues in the water bodies, which necessitated the need to remediate water systems already contaminated with atrazine. This was done by utilizing readily available and cheap plant based waste materials within the study area which include; acha (Digitaria exilis) husk charcoal (AHC) and its blend with pulverized kaolinitic clay (<2mm) designated as AHC-CB. The order of efficiency of adsorption of the atrazine by the materials used when compared with commercial adsorbent brand is; M & B activated charcoal > AHC > AHC-CB. Suggesting that the acha husk charcoal is a good adsorbent and the locals could use it to adsorb such residues and organic pollutants in contaminated water bodies

 

DYEING AND ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF HETEROCYCLIC DYES

1*N.S. Gin, 2K.A. Bello, 3D.E.A. Boryo, 4C.G. Akubuilo and 5O. Elesho

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, P.M.B. 0094, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Nigeria

4,5Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi P. M. B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:nsgin67@gmail.com

Abstract

Six mono disperse dyes were synthesized using heterocyclic amines by the process of diazotization and coupling. The mono disperse dyes based on 2-amino-6-methane sulphony-benzothiazole and 2-amino-5ethylthiol-1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized using 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and N,N-bis-[2-cynoethyl] aniline as the coupling components. The different properties of the dyes such as yield, melting point, molecular weight, and molar extinction coefficient, degree of exhaustion and wash fastness properties on nylon were analyzed. A gamut of colour shades ranging from pink to purple were obtained by applying the variously substituted dyes on a nylon fabric. The effects of application conditions such as temperature and time on dye exhaustion were also investigated. The result shows that the dyes have very good extinction coefficient and excellent wash-fastness and therefore can be of commercial significance.

 

ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY MERALS IN GROUND WATER OF GOMBE STATE UNIVERSITY AND ITS ENVIRONS

Y. Fai, W. L. Danbature, and A. U. Barambu

Chemistry Department , Gombe State University, Tudun Wada Gombe. Gombe State, Nigeria

Correspondence author:wldanbature@gsu.edu.ng 

Abstract

Assessment of the level of some heavy metals; arsenic, lead, cadmium, iron, manganese, and chromium in ground water of Gombe State University and its Environs was carried out using Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) model 2000DV for three months. The results of the analysis in mg/l show that arsenic ranged from 0.050±0.005 to 0.150±0.005;  lead  ranged from 0.001±0.001 to 0.015±0.002; cadmium ranged from 0.000±0.000 to 0.004±0.002; iron ranged from 0.006±0.004 to 4.865±0.745; chromium ranged from 0.002±0.001 to 0.003±0.002; and, manganese ranged from 0.003±0.001 to 3.066±0.130. Arsenic concentration was found to be above WHO and SON maximum permissible limit for portable water for all the sampling points. Lead was above WHO and SON maximum permissible limit only in sampling point AU2. Iron and manganese were outrageously higher than WHO and SON in sampling point AU2.It was concluded that the ground water of Gombe State University and its Environs is contaminated with arsenic and is not good as portable water.

 

PREPARATION OF NANOPOROUS SILICA FROM BAGASSE

1*S. O. Alayande, 2E. O. Dare,  2A. K. Akinlabi, 2W. B. Ayinde, and 1G. A. Osinkolu

1Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile ife, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:gbengaalayande@gmail.com

Abstract

Silica was prepared from bagasse ash using cation exchange resin method which resulted in high purity silica xerogels. The silica xerogel was then nanostructured using templating concept, templates with and without swelling agent was investigated. The porous silica was obtain with macro pores. The presence of swelling agent resulted in ordered pores with average pore size of 82nm while templates only resulted in disordered pores in the silica with average pore of  305.86nm.Nanooporous silica was developed from bagasse ash which can be used as catalyst carrier, filtration processes, treatment of effluents etc.

 

TREATMENT OF TANNERY EFFLUENT USING POROUS CLAY AT SHARADA INDUSTRIAL ESTATE IN KANO NIGERIA.

1E.Q. Umudi, and 2T. Emefiele

1College of Education, Chemistry Department, Agbor, Delta State

2College of Agriculture, Iguoriahi Edo State

*Corresponding author:ese.umudi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Mineralogy and chemical analysis of two Nigeria clays were studied by X- ray and AAS respectively.  Clays were obtained from Delta State and coded UM and BB. Analysis revealed that they were Kaolinite clays and chemical analysis confirmed aluminosilicate layer of clays. Performance efficiency showed clays made porous with stone pebbles in ratio 1:2 w/w which gave optimum water purification of the tannery effluent. Using the batch method the pH, TS, DO, BOD, COD, Bacteria counts and metal concentrations were studied for 7 days and effluents after treatment were lower than WHO, SON and NESREA standards for drinking water. This is a simple, low-cost, locally sourced material and technologically simple decentralized waste water purification system.

 

pH AND SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN  BREWERY EFFLUENTS AND THE  RECIEVING IKPOBA RIVER, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

1S. O. Akporido and 2A. Ipeaiyeda

1Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka. Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

Abstract

A study of the quality of the brewery effluents from effluent carrying conduits and water of the receiving Ikpoba River was carried out.  Effluent samples collected from effluent conduits and water samples from the receiving river were analyzed for the parameters of:  temperature, pH, heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr).  Results for Pb (419 + 360 mg/L) and Cd (30 + 28 mg/L) in effluent exceeds two national effluent guidelines.  Result for Pb (187±84 mg/L), Cr (64 + 53 mg/L) and Cd (23 + 20 mg/L) in the receiving water exceed several international and national drinking water guidelines.  The average value for Pb in water exceed guidelines for irrigation and livestock water, Cu (37 + 12 mg/L) and Cd (23 + 20 mg/L) also exceed irrigation guidelines.

 

REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC ACIDS

*T.O. Oluseyi, K.O. Olayinka and E.A. Adedapo

Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos. Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: toluseyi@unilag.edu.ng 

Abstract

Environmental assessment was carried out to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil contaminated with petroleum products in four locations in Lagos metropolis, namely Apapa, Tin Can Island, Mushin and West Minister. Soil extracts were analysed with high performance liquid chromatography. The soils contained high organic matter ranging from 16.72 to 26.16 %, the percentage sand, silt and clay were between the range of 65.5-84.3 %, 5.7-12.5 % and 9.2-21.8 % respectively. The total concentration of PAHs in soil samples ranged from 75.93 to 424.8 μg/g. The percentage distribution of the 4-rings PAHs were the highest which ranged from 49 to70.79 % compared to the 2- and 3- rings PAHs that ranged from 24.00 to 31.12 %, 5- rings PAHs ranged from 4.14 to 14.20 %  and 6- rings PAHs ranged from 1.07 to 6.57 %.  Soil samples which had been spiked with naphthalene, acenaphthene and anthracene were treated using low molecular organic acids (oxalic and tartaric acid) at various concentrations ranging from 0.2 M to 1M. The result showed that the extractable levels of naphthalene, acenaphthene and anthracene increased with increase in tartaric and oxalic acid concentrations. Also, more of acenaphthene was observed to be removed, up to 72% using oxalic acid whereas for naphthalene and anthracene the percentage removed were lower, 42% and 37% respectively. Remediation of PAHs using tartaric acid and oxalic acid, showed positive signs of remediation, with oxalic acid giving a higher remediation potential over tartaric acid on all remediation indices assessed.

 

POLYMERS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY

*L. O. Ekebafe, J.A.Idiaghe, B.W.Etiobhio, M.O. Ihuezor

Polymer Technology Department, Auchi Polytechnic, P.M.B. 13, Auchi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: lawekebafe@gmail.com

Abstract

Approximately half of oil production in developing countries is as a result of waterflood and a major concern of this process is mobility control of the injected phase. With the unfavorable mobility ratio, channeling through permeable zones and the fingering effect can occur that leads to an early water breakthrough and inefficient flooding. By adding polymer to the injection water and, consequently, increasing the water viscosity, the displacement becomes more stable and a greater good efficiency can be achieved. This paper provides a review of what is known about these claims and also about the wider benefits of the adoption of this process. The intention of this review is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

 

DETERMINATION OF Pb, Cd, Cu AND Zn CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL OF AN ABANDONED CITY MARKET IN MINNA, NIGERIA

*J. O. Jacob, S. O. Salihu, Y. B. Paiko and M. A. Mahammad

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:jacobasol@yahoo.com

Abstract

Concentrations lead, cadmium, copper and zinc were determined in soil samples from a large portion of land in the central area of Minna, North-central Nigeria. The land was formerly used as the city central market. The area was divided into 20 zones from which composite samples of surface soil were collected for analysis. Control samples were also collected at a distance of 500 m from the area. Samples were digested using a 3:1 mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. Recovery test on the method of digestion gave % recoveries > 95 % while in the analysis of reference materials of soil, t-test results (at 95 % confidence interval) showed that statistically there exists no significant difference between certified and obtained values. Digests were analysed using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean concentration of the heavy metals (µg/g dry weight) in the soil samples were Pb; 115 ± 11, Cd; 2.8 ± 1.2, Cu; 132 ± 12 and Zn; 322 ± 43. Pollution load index (PLI) values revealed that the abandoned market soil is generally more polluted with these metals due to commercial activities. The mean concentrations of the metals in soil samples were generally higher than the WHO maximum permissive limits, except for Cd. This calls for concern because of possible contamination of sources of domestic water of adjourning residential areas due to run-off and leaching. Also the area might later be utilized for other purposes posing the risk of human exposure.

 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF BROWSE LEAVES (SPONDIAS MOMBIN AND ALBIZIA SAMAN) AND TUBER PEELS (YAM AND CASSAVA) USED AS RUMINANT FEEDS.

1*T. A. Afolabi, 2R. S. Onadeji, 3O. A. Ogunkunle and  1,2F. O. Bamiro

1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

3 Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: niyiafo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The proximate and mineral analyses of two browse leaves (spondias mombin and albizia saman) and two tuber peels (yam (dioscorea rotundata) and cassava (manihot esculentum)) were carried out in order to justify their use as feedstuff for ruminant animals and then compare the nutritional parameters of the browse leaves with that of the tuber peels. The proximate composition (moisture content, ash, crude fibre, crude protein, etc) of the samples were determined using standard procedure by AOAC, while the mineral contents were determined with the aid of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results of the proximate analyses showed that the browse leaves have 24.42% and 15.98% protein for albizia saman and spondias mombin respectively, while the tuber peels are 7.66% and 3.72% for yam and cassava peels respectively. However, the tuber peels are better dietary sources of energy as they have higher Nitrogen Free Extract (Carbohydrate) values (81.67% and 78.97% for yam and cassava peels respectively) as compared to the browse leaves (39.37% and 51.95% for Albizia saman and Spondias mombin respectively). The Fe content of the browse leaves was 23.95 and 12.80 mg/100g for albizia saman and spondias mombin respectively, while the tuber peels had 12.30 and 9.00 mg/100g Fe content for cassava and yam peels respectively. The browse leaves had higher Ca contents of 780 and 1798 mg/100g for albizia saman and spondias mombin respectively, while that of the tuber peels was significantly lower with 712 and 63 mg/100g for cassava and yam peels respectively. Also yam peels had the highest K concentration (1548 mg/100g). The study showed that the feeding of either browse leave or tuber peel alone will not be able to meet the nutritional requirement of ruminants. Hence, both have to be combined in a single diet in order to meet animal’s nutritional requirement.

 

BIODIESEL FROM TEPHROSIA VOGELII SEED OIL

D.R. Naron and M.P.L. Kagoro

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural sciences,  University of Jos Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:emmanuel_marypaymwa@yahoo.com

Abstract

With the ever increasing demand and dwindling fossil fuel resources coupled with environmental concern, biodiesel seem to be the solution for the future. In this study, Tephrosia vogelii (T. vogelii) seeds were extracted using n-hexane and the oil was converted into T. vogelii biodiesel by transesterification with methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The physicochemical properties of the extracted oil were acid value -1.647mgKOH/g, iodine value -58.42g, saponification number -220.60mgKOH/g, density -0.905g/ml and viscosity@40oC -29.95mm2/s and that for the biodiesel are acid value -0.501mgKOH/g, viscosity@40oC -7.323mm2/s, density -0.884g/ml, flash point 158oC and cloud point -13oC. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were in close agreement with ASTM biodiesel specification standard except for the viscosity, which was slightly above the standard.  GC-MS analysis confirmed the formation of methyl esters of T. vogelii seed oil which showed the presence of seven major fatty acids with four saturated and three unsaturated fatty acids

 

ASSESSMENT OF FEED QUALITY EFFICIENCY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS

*1U.F. Hassan, 2H. Baba, 1M.A. Shibdawa, 1A.A .Mahmoud and 1J. Ishaku

1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B.0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

2Chemistry Department, College of Education, P.M.B.039, Minna, Niger  State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: ufhassan2007@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

The proximate and mineral contents of Moringa oleifera seeds were carried out in order to determine the possibility or otherwise of incorporating the seeds in compounding animal feeds. The seeds were found to contain the following grand mean levels of: moisture content (6.74%), dry matter (93.26%), ash content (7.43%), crude lipid (29.25%), crude fibre (12.71%), crude protein (30.61%) and carbohydrate (20.00%) respectively. The overall average metabolisable energy was found to be 1942.66 kJ/100g. The differences in all the respective parameters of the proximate composition of the seeds were found to be statistically not significant (P<0.01) as revealed by Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance by ranks. The results of the mineral composition of all the metals determined indicated lower concentration levels such that the values are lower than the recommended dietary allowances for ruminant animals. The concentration of the minerals determined were subjected to Spearman’s ranked correlation with ties (P<0.01). Students t-test further indicated the extent of the correlation among the concentration of the metals determined.

 

DEPOSITION OF HEAVY METALS AROUND KATSINA STEEL ROLLING COMPANY IN KATSINA TOWNSHIP USING BARK OF NEEM TREE ( Azadirachta indica) AS BIOINDICATOR

1*W.L.O Jimoh and 2S.A. Fowotade.

1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano Nigeria.

2Department of IJMB, College of Foundation Studies and Enterprenuership Education, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: fowotades14@gmail.com

Abstract

The bark of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is used in this study as bio-indicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in Katsina township. Barks are sampled from four sites in Katsina township, which include; Katsina Steel Rolling Company Round-about (Site A), Kofar Kwaya Round-about (Site B), Kofar Yandaka Round-about (Site C) and Nigeria Army Barrack, Natsinta (Site D). The samples are analyzed for Iron, Manganese, Copper, Lead, Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The result obtained reveals heavy metal levels ranging from 52.50μgg–1 – 196.25μgg–1(Fe), 19.50μgg–1– 34.25μgg–1(Mn), 2.41μgg–1 – 8.43 μgg–1(Zn), <0.01 μgg–1 ­­– 18.75 μgg–1 (Cr), 3.01 μgg–1 – 11.50 μgg–1 (Co), <0.01 μgg–1 – 3.50 μgg–1 (Pb), 1.00 μgg–1 – 4.25 μgg–1 (Ni) and 0.13 μgg–1 – 2.75 μgg–1(Cu) across the four sites. The resuls also shows the concentrations of Iron correlating significantly with distance from the Steel Rolling Company, the source of contamination. The heavy metal burdens from site A are the highest while those from site D are the least. The result also indicates a somewhat correlation between the heavy metal concentrations and distance of each site from the source of contamination with the exception of copper, lead and zinc concentrations. Amidst the heavy metal analyzed, Fe has the highest level while Cu has the least. It is concluded that neem bark is a good biomonitor for air quality monitoring.

 

NANOSTRUCTURING OF  WASTE POLYSTYRENE

*1, 2 S. O. Alayande, 2E. O. Dare, 2A. K. Akinlabi, 1A.Y. Fasasi and 1G. A. Osinkolu.

  1. Nanotechnology Research Group, Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State
  2. Industrial Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State.

*Corresponding author:gbengaalayande@gmail.com

Abstract

In this report, we report the recycling of a notable polymer waste known as Expanded/ Extruded Polystyrene (E-PS). E-PS was nanostructured into fibres using electrospinning process in the presenceof tetrahydrofuran. The thermal, molecular and surface morphology of the electrospun fibre was compared with parent bulk material (E-PS), though molecular bonding remain unchanged, thermal properties and surface morphology differed. Nanostructuring through electrospinning resulted into porous fibre which can be used as a membrane, filter, catalyst carrier, sensor, etc.

 

ADSORPTION KINETICS FOR THE REMOVAL OF LEAD (II) AND IRON (II) IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING CHEMICALLY MODIFIED PALM KERNEL SHELL CARBON

1B.N Okolue, *2C.I Ekeocha and 3J.A Olunwa

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2National Mathematical Centre, Sheda- Kwali, P.M.B 118 Garki Abuja F.C.T Nigeria.

3Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

*Correspondingauthor:x2xtopher@yahoo.com

Abstract

The use of chemically modified palm kernel shell carbon in the absorption of metal ions from an aqueous solution containing lead (II) and iron (II) ions was investigated. During this study, it was observed that increase in certain parameters like pH, time, temperature and concentration of the system influences the rate of absorption of adsorbate onto adsorbent. Modification of the adsorbent with a strong oxidizing agent like trioxonitrate (IV) produces acidic oxide which significantly influences the ultimate adsorption properties of the adsorbent towards metal ions and the removal of the metal ions from the study was seen to be very high. The sorption process was modeled using pseudo-first order kinetics and it gave a good fit with rate constants of 1.05×10-2 min-1 and 1.20×10-2min-1 for the lead (II) and Iron (II) ions respectively. Furthermore, thermodynamics indicates that the adsorption process was spontaneous (ΔG < 0). Slightly exothermic (ΔHo< 0) and irreversible (ΔSo>0). The study significantly revealed the presence of time, pH, temperature and concentration as important parameters to be considered in the design of technique for the treatment and management of pollution involving heavy metal pollutants.

 

COMPARISON OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED AND UNMODIFIED FLOWER OIL OF Ageratum conyzoides

1I.A. Duru, *2C.E. Duru, 3F.C. Ibe and 1C.A. Nweze

1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.

2 Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri Imo State.

3 Department of Chemistry, Imo State University Owerri.

*Corresponding author:chydik2002@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Chemically modified and unmodified oil of Ageratum conyzoides were compared for improved activity against some selected strains of pathogenic microbes. The oil from fresh flowers of the plant was extracted by steam distillation. A portion of the extracted oil was modified by rapid bromination and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were compared against those of the pure oil. The results obtained showed that the chemically modified oil of A. conizoides exhibited increased antifungal properties than the pure oil. C. parapsilosis and K. aerogenes were totally resistant to the modified oil. T. mentagrophytes and S. aureus which are pathogenic skin microbes were totally resistant to the pure oil but were sensitive to the chemically modified oil making this type of oil a good active ingredient in ointments against the microbes.

 

DETOXIFICATION OF Hg (II), As (III) AND Pb (II) IONS FROM WASTEWATER BY BIOSORPTION WITH COCONUT FIBER

1*J. C. Igwe,  1S. I. Okenwa and 2A. A. Abia

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000 Uturu,

Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, River State Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:jcigwe2001@yahoo.com

Abstract

The pollution of the environment with toxic metals is a result of human activities such as mining and metallurgy. The effects of these metals on the ecosystems are of large economic and public health significance. Bioremediation consists of a group of applications, which involve the detoxification of hazardous substances instead of transferring them from one medium to another by means of microbes and plants. The pH, temperature and particle size effects on the detoxification of Hg2+, As3+ and Pb2+ metal ions using modified and unmodified coconut fiber was studied in this paper. pH significantly affected the adsorption with maximum amount adsorbed at pH of 10-12. Adsorption increased, as temperature increased until at about 40 oC. The bigger particle size of 600μm showed greater adsorption. Modification also increased the absorption capacity. These results will serve as parameters for design of treatment plants for heavy metal detoxification using agricultural by- products such as coconut fibre.

 

EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PHYSICALLY MODIFIED FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE CORACANA) STARCH

1*T. A. Afolabi, 2B. I. Olu-Owolabi, and 2K. O. Adebowale

1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:niyiafo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The native finger millet starch (NaFM) was physically modified by annealing (ANN) in excess water at 50oC for 48 h; pregelatinised (PREG) at 55oC for 10 min; and also heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 100oC, 16 h; 20% moisture level (HFM-20), 25% moisture level (HFM-25) and 30% moisture level (HFM-30). The starch was compressed for 1min, and the tableting properties of the starch compacts were determined. The Hausner’s ratio ranged between 1.23 – 1.42, while there was reduction in the Carr’s index after HMT from 23.63 to 13.33 (HFM-20), 18.73 (HFM-25) and 19.10 (HFM-30). Similarly, there was reduction in the compressibility index of the native starch from 11.70% (NaFM) to 9.81% (PREG) and 6.03 – 8.51% (HMT). The mean yield pressure Py (Heckel analysis) increased after physical modifications of the starch, however, the starch’s deformability (Pk) (Kawakita analysis) decreased in the ANN and PREG starch compacts. The tensile strength of the starch compacts were reduced after HMT, while PREG and ANN increased its strength. Physical modification of the starch excipient reduced the disintegration time of its tablets in the following order: Native > ANN > PREG >> HMT. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results showed that gelatinisation temperatures increased after the physical modifications; however, there was no significant change in the granule morphology after the physical modifications, as revealed by the Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM).

 

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS FROM OWORONSHOKI, LAGOS LAGOON

1A. B. Williams, 2O. O. Ayejuyo and 3J. P. Unyimadu

IDepartment of Chemistry, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

3Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: akan.williams@covenantuniversity.edu.ng

Abstract

Microlayer water, mixed layer water, surface and bottom sediments were collected from Oworonshoki, Lagos Lagoon to analyse for organochlorine pesticide residues. Sampling was conducted between December 2008 and September 2009 during the dry and wet seasons. Water samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction while the sediments were subjected to cold extraction and clean-up. The samples were analysed for aldrin, dieldrin; endrin, DDT, heptachlor and their metabolites; HCH and endosulfan isomers; α, γ-chlordane and methoxychlor. A gas chromatograph was used for the  detection and determination of the pesticide residues. Pesticide residues in the surface and bottom sediments were higher than the residues in the water. The mixed layer water showed enhanced levels of residues when compared with the microlayer water. The residue levels were higher during the dry season than the wet season. The levels of residues in the water and sediments were within the permissive limits as prescribed by WHO and USEPA.

 

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTITERMITE ACTIVITY OF THE STEM BARK AND LEAVES OF ZANTHOXYLUM ZANTHOXYLOIDES

*A. Mann, J. Yisa, L. A. Fadipe, and J. A. Samuel

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: abdumann@yahoo.com  

Abstract

Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a plant that has been found to possess various uses. Since there is increased awareness about the use of Z. zanthoxyloides for the control of termites, it has become an interesting area for scientific investigation. The crude methanol extracts and solvent soluble fractions of the stem bark and the leaves were screened for their phytochemical properties and their antitermite activities. The antitermite activity revealed the stem bark to be the most efficacious extract and the n-hexane fraction to be the most active fraction with the highest activity (96.67%). The phytochemical screening of the stem bark and the leaves of this plant revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and glycosides. Thus, these results show that the plant possess antitermite effect.

 

EVALUATION OF THE EROSIVE POTENTIALS OF ‘ZOBO’ (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA) AND SOME BRANDED DRINKS ON THE HUMAN ENAMEL.

*C. C. Obunwo and O. S. Bull

Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: ccobunwo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The erosive potentials of raw and blended Zobo drinks as well as some selected branded soft drinks on dentition have been evaluated through measurements of pH, electrical conductivities and buffering capacities. Mean pH values for raw, orange-, pineapple- and pawpaw- blended zobo drinks were 3.60±0.20, 3.24±0.41, 3.30±0.37 and 3.19±0.31 respectively, whereas the mean electrical conductivities for these drinks ranged from 5110.0 µS/cm to 6230.0 µS/cm. Mean pH values and electrical conductivities of branded soft drinks were respectively as follows: Cola-1 and 2 (2.90±0.10, 675±0.25 µS/cm); Orange-1 and 2 (3.08±0.12, 300.0±0.75 µS/cm) and pineapple (3.91±0.22, 500±1.2 µS/cm). The buffering capacities of the Zobo drinks ranged from 2.0 mls to 4.0 mls of NaOH whereas those of the branded drinks ranged between 4.0 mls and 6.0 mls NaOH. The results indicate that the Zobo (raw and blended) drinks as well as the branded soft drinks are quite acidic and may exhibit erosive capabilities since their pH values are below the critical pH (5.5) for enamel dissolution. A non-linear relationship exists between pH and the buffering capacities of the drinks.

 

PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF VULCANIZATES FROM MODIFIED SAW DUST AND LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT NATURAL RUBBER.

1*A.K Akinlabi, 1N.O. Etafo,  1S. A Oguntubo, 1O. H Bello, 1O.K Oderinde, 2O. K. Koleoso, 3A. S. Arowolo and 4S. O. Alayande

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Ogun State. Nigeria.

2Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Nigeria

3Science Laboratory Department, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Nigeria

4Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. Nigeria

*Corresponding author:akakinlabi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Natural rubber is an elastomer that is widely used and derived from Hevea Brasiliensis tree. In this study, rubber was used to prepare low molecular weight natural rubber (LMWNR) of 28,866gmol-1 molecular weight by depolymerization  using nitrobenzene. Instead of the traditional Carbon additive, sawdust was modified and used in the compounding of the LMWNR. The XRF analysis showed that the modified sawdust has higher concentration of As, Ca, and Fe, and the unmodified has higher concentration of K. The unmodified and modified sawdust samples were used in the compounding of LMWNR to obtain three vulcanizates as follows: Vulca A-carbon black N330 and LMWNR, Vulca B-modified sawdust and LMWNR, Vulca C-unmodified sawdust.  The physico-mechanical properties of the three  were carried out and results indicates that elongation at break and tensile strength of Vulca C was the highest, followed by Vulca B while the least was Vulca A. The hardness test showed that vulca A has the highest while vulca-B and -C have the same value. The test showed vulca A has the highest, with the least being Vulca B. Generally, the trend observed from this result showed the modified sawdust samples have lower recovery tendencies thereby acting as semi-reinforcing filler while the unmodified acted as reinforcing filler.

 

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF THE PARTITIONED FRACTIONS OF THE FLAKING BARK OF COMMIPHORA KERSTINGII

1,*A. Mann, 1O.L. Andrew, 1L. A. Fadipe, 1G. F. Ibikunle, 1J. Yisa,  and 2E.O. Ogbadoyi

1,*Department of Chemistry, Federal University Technology, Minna, P. M. B. 65, Niger State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P. M. B. 65, Niger State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: abdumann@yahoo.com

Abstract

Crude methanol extract of Commiphora kerstingii, used traditionally for the treatment of tuberculosis was phytochemically screened. The phytoconstituents were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The crude extract was partitioned into four fractions namely ethyl acetate, n-hexane, n-butanol and aqueous methanol soluble fractions. These solvent soluble fractions were also phytochemically screened. Both crude extract and its fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography analysis as well as screened for their antitubercular activities against Mycobacterium bovis (BCG). The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones and flavonoids in the crude extract. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in the crude extract were quantified. Methanol soluble fraction was found to have moderate antitubercular activity (625µg/ml). GC-MS analysis of the methanol soluble fraction revealed fifteen constituents. Two of these phytocompounds were suggested to be cardiac glycoside, methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and the anthraquinone, 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-2, 7- dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone.

 

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