JCSN, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2013

MOLECULAR MECHANICAL SIMULATION STUDIES OF CARBONYL BAND MULTIPLICITY IN DECALIN ESTERS

I.A. Duru, *C.E. Duru and R.I. Ngochindo

Abstract

The use of Molecular Mechanics, MM2, as a clear and concise explanation for the existence of carbonyl band multiplicity in the infrared spectra of decalin esters has been highlighted using a model decalin ester (4a’R,8a’S)-methyl octahydro-1’H-spiro[[1,3]dioxane-2,2′-naphthalene]-8a’-carboxylate (MSDNC). The computational data obtained showed the existence of two energy minima separated by an energy maximum, all of which can be associated with defined structural conformations. Band multiplicity was shown to arise from rotational isomerism, with the resulting rotamers examined and their energies determined.

 

RELATIVE MOLAR SENSITIVITIES AND METHANE/AMMONIA CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOALKYL ETHERS.

*A. O. Onigbinde, B. Munson, and B. M.W Amos-Tautua.

Abstract

The effect of pressure variation on the methane /ammonia (CH4/NH3 ) chemical ionization (CI) mass spectra of polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers, PEGMAE, was investigated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometer was used to obtain the CH4/NH3 chemical ionization mass spectra. The results revealed that the spectra obtained at P (0.1) show less but similar fragmentation to that observed with CH4/CI and also include some (M+18)+ ions.. The mass spectra at P (0.01) contain essentially only (M+18)+ ions, small amounts of MH+ ions and (M+ NH4)+ as the base peak. The MH+ /(M+NH4)+  ratio increases with increasing n which may be due to formation of cyclic structures, additional stabilization of the (M+NH4)+ adduct ions, or solvation of the MH+ ions. The relative amount of MH+  ions was found to be much larger than that reported previously in the CH4 CI spectra of the same compounds. This indicates that there are significant amounts of proton transfer occurring from NH4+ to the PEGMAE’s. The formation of the adduct reagent ion NH4NH3+ (m/z 35), have been suggested to be by ligand switching for bifunctional oxygen compounds but it is not so for the PEGMAE studied in this paper. CH4/NH3 and iso-butane, C4H10,  gases are of equal utility but better than CH4 for quantification. The relative molar sensitivities, RMS, (EI and CI) for PEGMAEs increase linearly with increasing molecular polarizabilities 

 

OPTIMIZATION OF PYROLUSITE ORE DISSOLUTION IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID

*A. A. Baba, L. Ibrahim, F. A. Adekola, M. K. Ghosh, R. B. Bale, A. G. F. Alabi, A. R. Sheik and Y. A. Mutalib

Abstract

A study on the optimization of dissolution of manganese ore in hydrochloric acid from Kaoje axis, Kebbi State, Nigeria has been undertaken. The experimental parameters were leaching time, temperature, acid concentration and particle size. The leaching experiments showed that manganese ore dissolution increases with hydrochloric acid concentration and temperature, but decreases with increase in ore particle size. The results of leaching experiments showed that 4M HCl solution at 800C with particle size -90+75m at moderate stirring rate (300rpm) produces a dissolution efficiency of about 67.3%. The calculated activation energy and order of reaction were 30.9 kJ/mol and 0.92 respectively. The leaching system is therefore assessed to be diffusion control. The post-leached residual product at optimum conditions were also examined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to contain α-quartz, cristobalite and manganese oxide.

 

INVESTIGATION OF SOME POLLUTION INDICES OF DUG-WELL WATERS IN ENUGU URBAN, ENUGU, NIGERIA

N.R . Ekere

Abstract

Some Indices of pollution were studied in water samples from dug wells in Enugu Urban. Nitrate, pH, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, total dissolved solids and iron concentration levels were examined. The wells varied in depths and distance from septic tanks or pit toilets. A total of thirty (30) wells were studied from three major residential locations in Enugu urban. Results of the study showed that nitrate and other contaminants were in excess of the W.H.O recommended desirable limits for potable waters in majority of the wells. The levels of these contaminants have direct relationship with the distances of the wells from pit toilets and septic tanks. Implications of the results were discussed.

 

EFFECT OF RUBBER FACTORY EFFLUENTS ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF OIL PALM SEEDLETS

*M.O. Ekebafe, P. Oviasogie, L.O. Ekebafe, and S. Omorogbe

Abstract

The effect of crepe factory effluents on the growth performance of oil palm seedlets was investigated. The effluent was characterized in terms of pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, phosphorus content, organic carbon, calcium content, potassium content, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese and zinc. Soil samples from the main station were prepared and analyzed for physico-chemical properties in the laboratory using standard techniques. The growth, water retention capacity and soil physio-chemical properties of effluent –soil mixture samples in which sprouted oil palm seedlets have been planted were measured as a function of treatment loading. The effluent showed good improvement in the soil water retention capacity at 10-15% more with 1:2 effluent blend and 400,000 Lha-1 effluent treatment applications respectively than the control. The results of the soil-effluent treatments on the growth of the oil palm measured at a biweekly interval for two months showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the biometrics data compared to normal fertilizer use and the control. The physico-chemical properties of the effluent–soil mixture samples showed significant (p<0.05) improvement.

 

DUAL CATALYTIC FUNCTION OF CrCl2 IN D-GLUCOSE CONVERSION TO 5- HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL IN WATER

*C.E. Duru and I.A. Duru

Abstract

The glucose to fructose isomerisation, and fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) dehydration potentials of CrCl2 were studied in water at 373 K, using UV/Vis Spectrophotometry. The absorbance of HMF in the different study solutions were used to relate its amount in the solutions studied. The data obtained in this study showed that CrCl2 can not only catalyse the isomerisation of glucose to fructose in water, but also effectively converts fructose to HMF in the same solvent system. A preequilibrium approximation hypothesis was postulated to explain the relatively low formation of HMF when glucose was used as substrate relative to the use of fructose as substrate in the same medium.

 

INVESTIGATING ‘‘ZOBO’’ (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) SEED OIL AS POTENTIAL BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK IN NIGERIA

*I. Y. Chindo and A. Abimbolao

Abstract

Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use of those fossil fuels, the global energy concern has led to the search for alternative energy from the extensive consumption of fossil fuels.  In this work, ‘Zobo’  (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed oil was investigated for its viability for the first time in Nigeria as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude ‘zobo’ seed oil obtained by soxhlet extraction with hexane was transesterified using ethanolic solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the catalyst at 30oC and an oil/ethanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding ethyl esters. ‘Zobo’ seed oil ethyl ester (ZOEE) yield was 33.3 %. GC/MS analysis of ZOEE showed that it was composed mainly of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl-9-octadecenoate, and ethyl octadecanoate.  All the measured fuel properties of ZOEE satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of ZOEE was measured to be 2.65 mm2/s, a value lower than that for most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of zobo seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

 

IRON AND  ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE TISSUES OF DRIED  Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus FISH SPECIES SOLD IN BAUCHI, NIGERIA 

*U.F. Hassan, A.A.Mahmoud, H. Baba and A.A.Adamu

Abstract

The concentrations of iron and zinc in the tissues of two dried fish species (Oreochromis niloticus and  Clarias gariepinus) sold in Bauchi were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method. The mean Fe concentrations of  0.009, 0.010 and 0.005 µgg-1 in the gills, flesh and bones respectively were obtained with a grand mean level of  0.008 µgg-1  in dried Oreochromis niloticus. The average Zn levels of  0.008, 0.007 and 0.009 µgg-1 in the gills, flesh and bones respectively of the same Oreochromis niloticus were also found with a corresponding grand mean level of 0.008 µgg-1. The study further indicated average Fe concentrations in the tissues of dried Clarias gariepinus as 0.006, 0.010 and 0.012 µgg-1 in the gills, flesh and bones respectively with a grand Fe concentration of 0.009 µgg-1. The average Zn levels in the tissues of the same Clarias gariepinus were   also determined as 0.004, 0.007 and 0.011 µgg-1 in the gills, flesh and bones respectively with a corresponding grand mean Zn concentration of  0.007 µgg-1  . Bioaccumulation of Fe and Zn in the tissues of Claraias gariepinus followed the sequence: Fe>Zn. Similar sequence was observed in the flesh and gills of Orechromis niloticus, but the sequence in the bones of the same  Oreochromis niloticus was: Zn >Fe . Only the difference in the concentrations of Fe found in the tissues of dried Oreochromis niloticus were significantly different (P<0.10) using  one way analysis of  variance. The least significant difference  (LSD 0.10)  further revealed that only 33.33%  of the Fe assayed are significantly different in the tissues of the dried Oreochromis niloticus.

 

MULTIDENTATE TRIPODAL LIGANDS: STUDY OF THEIR METAL COMPOUNDS AND COMPARISON OF THEIR STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY 

*A. Mustapha and J. Reglinski

Abstract

Tripodal ligands offer a diversified chemistry, from coordination, synthetic method through to applied chemistry. The diverse chemistry of hexa and heptadentate tripodal ligands with transition metals and main group metals is what is reported here. The survey is focused on the coordination behaviour of the ligands, as such the survey covered the nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur containing derivative ligands. Due to their potentiality as electron rich complexes, a survey of the multimetallic complexes electrochemistry is being reported.

 

QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF TWO SURFACE DAMS IN TWO COMMUNITIES OF PLATEAU STATE, CENTRAL NIGERIA 

*Y .N. Lohdip, J. J. Gongden and K. C. Pam

Abstract

Water samples of two surface dams in parts of Plateau State, Central Nigeria, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbiological analyses to assess their suitability for domestic uses. The results of the study showed that the physical parameters like temperature, colour, odour, taste and total dissolved solids (TDS) for both dams are within the WHO standards for drinking water. However, the turbidity was found to be high with values of 35±2.13 and 16±0.92 for the respective dams as compared to the WHO value of 5.00NTU. Similarly, chemical parameters  of pH, conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), oil and grease, ammonia, Mg/Ca-hardness, chloride, phosphate and alkalinity for both dams were found to be above the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Elemental analysis using ICP-OES also indicated that Zn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Mn and Ba were above the tolerable limits recommended by WHO for drinking water. The total viable counts for all the samples exceed the limit of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for water. Identified isolates included staphyloccus aureus, salmonella spp, pseudomonas spp, Escherchia coli and proteus spp. Based on the outcome of this study the two dams are considered not potable and have serious health risks to the communities using them for drinking purposes.

 

COMPARISON OF RHEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF CARBON BLACK FILLED RUBBER VULCANIZATE WITH PALM KERNEL SHELL POWDER FILLED RUBBER VULCANIZATEJ.

Awatefe, and O. Akaranta

Abstract

Palm kernel Shell Powder (PKSP) of 60µm particles sizes was used as filler in comparison to carbon black (N330), conversional filler in Natural Rubber(NR) compounded at filler loading of 10-60 pphr. A control with no filler loading was also compounded with NR. A laboratory two roll mill was used for mixing. The rheology and cure properties of the compounded mixes were determined at 150oc using the oscillating disc Rheometer. The rheograph of all the mixes followed a similar curve pattern. The minimum torque decreased in PKSP filled mix in comparison to carbon black filled mix, but increased over the zero filled (control) mix, while the maximum torque of PKSP filled mix was quite comparable to the values obtained for carbon black filled mix and a considerable increase over the control. The maximum cure and scorch time were comparable for both PKSP filled mix, carbon Black filled mix and the control mix. In this preliminary investigation study, comparatively, PKSP filled NR mix has some advantage over carbon black filled mix, invariable in the area of maximum torque (modulus, stiffness), and NR mixing energy savings, but lower viscosity and scorch time.

 

ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF PERIWINKLE (TYMPANOTONUS FUSCATUS) SHELL FOR LEAD, COPPER, CADMIUM AND ARSENIC FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

*P. C. Okafor, P. U. Okon, E. F. Daniel, A. I. Ikeuba, U. J. Ekpe

Abstract

Adsorption capacity of Tympanotonus  fuscatus (periwinkle) shell for Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and As3+ from aqueous solutions were studied through batch adsorption technique at variable concentration, pH, temperature and sorption time. It was found that periwinkle shell (PWS) can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution containing low concentrations of the metals. The maximum ion adsorption capacities followed the trend Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+ >As3+ and the percentage adsorption was found to depend on the concentration of the adsorbent present, the solution pH, temperature and the sorption time. The average values of the activation energy of adsorption for PWS were 4.43, 5.72, 24.84 and 40.57 KJ/mol for Pb, Cu, Cd and As respectively. This shows that the adsorption of metal ions on the adsorbent is physical adsorption mechanism. Also, the kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo-second order type of mechanism while the adsorption characteristics of the adsorbent followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

 

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASHEW NUT SHELL

*M.N. Ogbuagu and B. Nwakudu

Abstract

The anti-microbial potential of cashew nut shell extract was investigated. The result showed very high potential of the extract against common bacteria and fungi species. The cashew nut shell extract showed higher anti-microbial activities than some standard anti-bacterial and anti-fungal preparations. The extract showed higher anti-bacterial activity than Gentamicin, Penicillin, Ciproxin in its zones of inhibition (mm) against  Escherichia coli(26.2±0.01mm), Staphylococcus aureus (18.3±0.11mm) and  Salmonella typhi (23.8±1.20mm).However, it showed a comparable activity with Gentamicin and Ciproxin against  Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.0±mm).The anti-fungal activity of the cashew nut shell extract also showed better inhibitory effect with higher zones of inhibition against Fusarium notatum (12.00±1.00mm) and Penicillium (16.00±1.00mm) but a comparable effect against Aspergillus spp. (14.33±0.58mm) and Candida albicans (20.67±0.57mm)  with standard FunBact-A solution. Generally, the cashew nut shell extract showed better anti-bacterial than anti-fungal potentials.

 

ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF SWEET ORANGE PEEL EXTRACT ON THE STABILITY OF CRUDE GROUNDNUT OIL

*J.O.Arawande, E.A.Komolafe and O.A.Karium

Abstract

Sweet Orange peel extracts as a natural source of antioxidant was evaluated during twelve months storage of crude groundnut oil (CGNO) in white transparent plastic bottles at room temperature (270C-330C). Extracts of sweet orange peel were prepared by dissolving dried, ground and sieved orange peel into water in ratio 1:10 for 72hours. The water orange peel extract (WOPE) were added at varying concentrations (200ppm to 1000ppm) to CGNO. Another set of CGNO which contained no additive (0ppm (control)) and 200ppmBHT was set-up. The colour and refractive indices of oil samples were immediately determined while free fatty acid (FFA), acid value (AV) and peroxide value (PV) of CGNO samples were monitored monthly using standard methods for a period of twelve months. The colour of CGNO containing additives (30.0-31.0 units) was the same with the colour of CGNO which contained no additive (30.0 units). There was no remarkable difference in refractive index of CGNO containing WOPE (1.465) with that of CGNO containing 200ppmBHT (1.465).There was slight difference in refractive index of CGNO containing WOPE (1.465) and CGNO which contained no additive (1.463) There was no significant difference at P<0.05 in FFA, AV and PV of CGNO containing WOPE with CGNO containing no additive. The WOPE at all concentrations considered are more effective in stabilizing CGNO against oxidative rancidity than 200ppmBHT while 200ppmBHT is superior to WOPE in stabilizing CGNO against hydrolytic rancidity

 

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF 3[(1E)-1-HYDRAZINYLIDENEBUTYL-4-METHYL-1-PHENYLPYRAZOLIN-2-ONE AND ITS CO(II), CU(II), NI(II) AND FE(III) COMPLEXES. 

J.N. Asegbeloyin, N.N. Ukwueze, O. Okpareke, F.U. Eze, and I.C. Agbo

Abstract

A pyrazolone Schiff base 3[(1E)-1-hydrazinylidenebutyl-4-methyl-1-phenylpyrazolin-2-one and its Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. The magnetic moments and molar conductivity of the metal complexes were also determined. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative clinical bacterial strains. The results showed that the metal complexes had better antimicrobial activity than the free ligand. This observation has been ascribed to the enhanced lipophilicity of the metal complexes.

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF THE EXTRACTS OF THE STEM BARK OF FICUS PLATYPHYLLA 

*I. Y. Chindo, H. M. Adamu, and K. S. Gamaniel

Abstract

Air-dried pulverized bark sample of Ficus platyphylla were extracted by polarity guided approach with hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water using both cold and hot solvent extraction methods. Ethanol gave the highest percent recovery of extracts, 37 % and 41.5 % for hot and cold extractions respectively.  The least percent recovery of 0.1 % and 1.5 % were obtained for the hot and cold methods respectively using toluene. The phytochemical screening of these extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids with a strong presence of saponin in the ethanol extracts. All the test organisms were sensitive to the extracts at concentrations of 250 μg/ml and 150 μg/ml and resistant at 50 μg/ml and below. The hot ethylacetate extract gave the least MIC, 100 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, while water extracts showed the highest MIC, 250 μg/ml against all test bacterial organisms.

 

DETERMINATION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FRESHWATER STRETCH OF MINIWEJA STREAM – A SWAMP FOREST STREAM IN EASTERN NIGER DELTA.

*C.C. Obunwo and S.A. Braide

Abstract

In order to assess the extent of deterioration or otherwise of the freshwater stretch of the Miniweja stream, the Water Quality Index of the water body was determined by measuring a number of physico- chemical characteristics using standard methods of analysis.. The mean levels of these parameters, when compared with values obtained 15 years earlier, showed no remarkable change in the physico-chemical characteristics of the water body, implying that there had not been observable deterioration of the water body despite increased anthropogenic inputs in the area. The overall Water Quality Index (WQI) also showed that the freshwater stretch was, in general, fit for drinking. The observed seasonal variations were not significantly different (p<0.05).

 

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