JCSN, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2012

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION IN THE USE OF MELON SEED OIL FATTY ACIDS AS PAINT DRIER

*1N. N. Ibekwe and 2J.A. Ibemesi

1National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Abstract

Oil obtained from ground melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus) was used to prepare soap by reacting with the appropriate amount of aqueous sodium hydroxide. The solution of the soap was reacted with an appropriate solution of the lead and cobalt metal salts by the double decomposition method to produce driers. The drier solutions (drier dissolved in turpentine) and linseed oil were mixed and left to stand for 50 hours after which they were applied to a taped off glass plate. The set-to-touch times were determined and this was employed to serve as a basis of comparison with the commercial paint driers (lead and cobalt naphthanates).

 

SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF N,N1-BIS(4-DIMETHYLAMINO BENZYLIDENE)  ETHANE-1,2-DIAMINE(DAED)  AND ITS LUTETIUM(III) AND DYSPROSIUM(III) COMPLEXES.
P.O Ukoha and U.S Oruma

Coordination Chemistry and Inorganic Pharmaceuticals Unit, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Abstract

 N,N1-Bis(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) ethane-1,2-diamine and its Lu(III) and Dy(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized by UV/Visible, IR, 1H and13C NMR spectral studies. Spectral data infers that N,N1-Bis(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) ethane-1,2-diamine coordinated to the metals as a tetradentate ligand. The Dy(III) complex crystallized with two water molecules whereas the Lu(III) complex formed with two Chloro ligands. Both complexes show 1:1 stoichiometry. Antimicrobial test indicates inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis by the complexes at concentration of 20mg/ml. The ligand at a concentration of 20mg/ml did not inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

 

PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF LIQUID MARBLES

[1]A. T. Tyowua

Department of Chemistry, Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract

A review of the various methods available for preparing liquid marbles and properties of liquid marbles like effective surface tension, statics, dynamics and evaporation rate has been presented. The effective surface tension may be less or higher than the surface tension of the encapsulated liquid depending on the kind of inter-particle interactions between the particles encapsulating the liquid droplet. At rest, liquid marbles assume either a quasi-spherical or puddle shape depending on their size but they possess a peanut, disk or doughnut shape when in motion. The particle coating on a liquid marble reduces the rate of evaporation of the encapsulated liquid droplet. Although liquid marbles are useful in many applications, in depth knowledge about them is yet to be gained.  As such, this paper has also considered the challenges involved in studying this class of soft matter and has suggested future investigations in the field.

 

PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INSECTICIDE-BASED COATINGS

1*O. A. Adetuyi, 2K. K Ajekwene and 1J. M Jabar

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure,  Nigeria.

2Department of Textile and Polymer Technology, Yaba College of Technology,Yaba, Lagos Sate, Nigeria

Abstract

Insecticide spray is the traditional method of insect control, the problems (such as high cost and environmental pollution) associated with it prompted researchers to looking for alternative insecticides that will provide solution to the problems as well as having equal or better effective control of insect as the insecticide spray.  The control and the insecticide-based paint samples were formulated and subjected to general tests synonymous to the usage of paints and insecticide in service life; such as opacity, viscosity, drying time, wash ability, mortality rate etc. Insects with complete metamorphosis (mosquitoes and houseflies) and incomplete metamorphosis (cockroaches and ants) were exposed to the boxes labeled D, A, B and C that were coated with control and insecticide-based paints respectively. It was observed that the quality of the paints were excellent for domestic and industrial surface coating and mortality rate of the insecticide-based paints X, Y and Z were in order X>Y> Z. All the insecticide-based paints have 0 % and greater than 90 % mortality rate on rats and insects respectively within a period of 238 days (mortality rate reduced with increased in number of day) while the control paint had 0 % mortality rate on rats and insects.

 

INVESTIGATION OF POLLUTION INDEX OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER OF NDIBE RIVER CATCHMENT, AFIKPO, NIGERIA

*1U.U. Egereonu, 1L.N. Ukiwe, 1S. Oti and 2J.C. Egereonu

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

2Department of Geosciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

Abstract

The pollution index of Ndibe River in Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria and the groundwater in five villages in Ndibe river catchment area as well as the Langelier saturation index (LSI) of the groundwater were investigated. The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and Ndibe River was found to have an overall pollution index of 1.0 which is a critical value while the groundwater in the catchment area was found to have negative LSI, hence corrosive.  There was no zinc pollutant in both the river and the groundwater.  The arsenic level of the groundwater of 0.073mg/l was found to be higher than the WHO standard of 0.03mg/l while the iron level of the river, 0.738mg/l was higher than the WHO permissible level of 0.3mg/l.

 

SYNTHESES AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF N-(BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)ETHANESULPHONAMIDE AND ITS Cu(I) AND Ni(II) COMPLEXES

*1 N. L. Obasi,  1C. O. B. Okoye,  1P. O. Ukoha and 2K. F. Chah

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Abstract

N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)ethanesulphonamide (ES2ABT) was synthesized by the condensation (by refluxing) of 2-aminobenzothiazole and ethanesulphonylchloride in acetone at 130 °C. Two metal complexes of nickel(II) and copper(I) of the ligand were synthesized. The compounds were characterized using magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass spectrometry, elemental microanalysis, UV/VIS spectrophotometry, infra red, proton and 13C nmr spectroscopies. The antimicrobial tests of the ligand and its metal complexes were carried out on both multi-resistant bacterial strains isolated under clinical conditions and cultured species using agar-well diffusion method. The multi-resistant bacterial strains used were Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus aureus which were isolated from dogs. The culture species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia Coli (ATCC 25922) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and the fungi, Candida krusei (ATCC 6258) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). The tests were both in vitro and in vivo. Thus the Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD), the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), and the Lethal and Effective Concentrations (LC50 and EC50) were determined. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds were compared with Ciprofloxacin as antibacterial agent and Fluconazole as an antifungal drug. All the compounds showed varying activities against the cultured typed bacteria and fungi used. The ligand, ES2ABT was very active against Candida krusei (ATCC 6258) unlike Fluconazole which did not show any activity against it. The Lethal Concentration (LC50) ranged from 137.92±36.86-495.30±86.81 ppm. These are within the permissible concentrations.

 

DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN AN ABANDONED COAL MINE OVERBURDEN SOIL FROM OKABA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA.

*1E.O. Okorie and 2J.N. Egila

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Federal Polytechnic Idah,

P.M.B. 1037 Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084 Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The distribution of metals in an abandoned coal mine overburden and a control soil 50km apart was studied by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescent spectrophotometer. Results indicate the presence of Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Ru, Os, Au and Yb in the samples studied. The pH values for the mine overburden were low compared to the control soil and this played a significant role in the mobility of these metals in the soil. Metals such as K and Ca were detected at low concentrations with ranges of 2.82 – 4.40 mg/Kg and 0.63 – 2.29 mg/Kg respectively for the overburden soil while for the control soil (50Km from mine site), K and Ca concentrations ranges from 1.33 -2.82 mg/Kg and 2.00 – 7.64 mg/Kg respectively. It was also observed that the mine overburden contains less heavy metals than the control soil. This was generally attributed to the low pH values of the overburden samples. With the low pH values, the overburden soil is not good for agricultural purposes according to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. Metals such as Ru and Zr were detected in the overburden and could possibly come from the underlying coal deposits. Results for all the metals studied at different depths and concentrations are presented.

 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIESOF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA SEED OIL FROM GOMBE STATE, NORTHERN NIGERIA

Abdullahi, Y. F. Fai, and *E. Karu

Chemistry Department, Gombe State University, Nigeria

Abstract

Oils of Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernels from different samples obtained from five Local Government Areas of the state were extracted following literature methods and using normal hexane as solvent. Iodine value, saponification value, acid value and refractive index and oil content were determined. The seed kernels were found to contain varying levels of oils, mainly in the range of 42 – 50%. The level of unsaturation as suggested by the iodine value is  of the range 98 – 102 and infrared absorption bands at 1650cm-1 and 1750cm-1 indicative of C=C and C=O of unsaturated carboxylic acid respectively. Judging by the high saponification values of the range 220 – 270, the oil may not be suitable for paint formulation but suitable for soap production.

 

SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF NITRATE POLLUTION IN DRINKING WATER RESOURCES IN NIGER DELTA AREA, NIGERIA

*1A. Rim-Rukeh and 2G. Irerhievwie

1Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources,           P.M. B. 1221 Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria.

2Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State.

Abstract

A study on the trend analysis and seasonal variability of nitrate concentration in river systems and hand-dug wells in parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria has been carried out. The study period covered between April 2007 and November 2010 (including both dry and rainy seasons). The experimental study covered three (3) river systems and seven (7) hand – dug wells.  Results of the seasonal variability indicated that rainy season nitrate values are higher than dry season nitrate values in the water samples with values that ranged from 27.5 to 54.6 mg/l in the rainy season and from 17.17 to 38.6mg/l in the dry season. Correlation coefficient (r) of 0.91 and 0.87 for the rainy and dry season respectively indicated a strong positive relationship between the amount of rainfall and that of nitrate concentration. Trend analysis using annual mean values of nitrate levels measured in the studied water samples in the study area indicated an annual incremental amount. Fitted regression line equation of y = 32 + 8.74b and y = 20.76 + 6.52b were obtained in the rainy and dry season respectively. A comparative analysis of the mean values of nitrate levels in river and well systems indicates the nitrate concentration in the well system is higher than that in the river system. The results indicated that nitrate concentrations in all the water samples were above the World Health Organization (WHO) maximum acceptable limit in potable waters of 10 mg/l. It is therefore noteworthy to establish the baseline status of the surface and groundwater for monitoring as well as developmental purposes.

 

EFFECT OF HEAT ON BETA-CAROTENE CONTENT OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA), TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICM) AND PALM FRUIT (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS)

*M.C. Utin and K.I. Ekpenyong

                                   Department of Chemistry, Faculty OF Natural Sciences, University of Jos, P.M.B 2084, Jos

Abstract

Traditionally, palm oil is extracted by heating the fruit seed to liberate the oil. Tomato paste is obtained by heating blended tomato to dryness, while carrot is cooked directly with food. In this work, beta-carotene from carrot, tomato and palm fruit oil was obtained by extracting the raw sample with chloroform and the extracts quantified by uv. The samples were then heated above room temperature and their   absorption profiles as a function of heating time and temperature recorded.                                                                                                                         A progressive drop in absorbance of each sample with increasing heating time and a subsequent disappearance of the absorbance characteristic of carotene was observed at higher temperature and long period of heating. These observations and their implications on the vitamin A content of locally prepared foods containing carrot, tomato and palm fruit oil are discussed in the paper.

 

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ON STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF CROSSOPTERYX FEBRIFUGA (RUBIACEAE) 

*T. A. Tor-Anyiin and R. Y. Shimbe

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi,

Benue State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Crossopteryx febrifuga is widely used in complementary medicine. Its stem bark extracts obtained via Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane, acetone and ethanol gave alkaloids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes and tannins when screened phytochemically. These extracts were further investigated for their anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with ampicillin as standard. Highest anti-bacterial activity was observed with acetone extract at a concentration of 300 mg/ml and least activity with ethanol extract at a concentration of 100mg/ml. n-Haxane extract showed no inhibition the on tested microorganisms.

 

STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF COUNTER IONS AND MODIFICATION OF ADSORBENT ON THE KINETICS OF HG (II), AS (III) AND PB (II) IONS REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING SAWDUST MEAL.

*1J.C. Igwe 2A.A Abia and 3E.D Asuquo

1 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000 Uturu. Abia State Nigeria.

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port-Harcourt, River State, Nigeria.

3 Liverpool Centre for Materials and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, The University of Liverpool,

 Crown Street, Liverpool, L.69 7ZD UK.

Abstract

The use of sawdust meal in the adsorption of metal ions in a mixture of Hg (II), As (III) and Pb (II) was investigated. Whereas particle sizes of adsorbent affected the adsorption of As (III) and Pb (II), it did not affect the adsorption of Hg (II) ion. The removal efficiencies of the metal ions was very high (99.99%). Modification by thiolation and carboxymethylation did not significantly affect the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The sorption process was modeled using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic equations with the later giving a good fit with rate constant (k2) of 3.33×10-22 g/mg-min and R2 value of 1.00 for the three metal ions and the three adsorbent types. The adsorption in a mixture of metal ions caused a leveling effect on the sorption capacity of the sawdust meal. Therefore, the sorption efficiency of each metal ion was influenced by the presence of other metal ions. This study significantly reveals the presence of other heavy metals, as design parameter in the treatment and management of heavy metal pollutants using cellulosic materials such as sawdust.

 

SOLVENT ENHANCEMENT OF ELECTRONIC INTENSITY IN ACRIDINE AND 9-AMINOACRIDINE 

*1S. A. Ahmed, 1N. O. Obi-Egbedi and 1A.I. Adeogun

        1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

              2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract

The electronic absorption spectra of acridine and 9-aminoacridine have been studied in various fluid solutions at room temperature. The modified Onsager-Abe-Iweibo reaction field model for a spherical molecule was employed to determine the oscillator strength, f, in vapour phase. The intensity enhancements for the forbidden transition observed are ascribed to perturbation forces between the solute and solvent molecules.

 

TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORAGE SAMPLES IN NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA.

*J.C. Igwe P.O Ihesilo and I.C. Nnorom

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Biological and Physical Sciences, Abia State University,

P.M.B. 2000 Uturu, Abia State Nigeria

Abstract

The Bioaccumulation of trace metals such as Pb2+ Cd2+, Cu2+and Co3+ metal ions  from the environment by the following forages Okra (Hibiscus esculentus), Bitter leaf (vernonia amygdalina), sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas) and Elephant grass (perineum purpumeum), in Warri Area of Niger Delta of Nigeria were investigated. The concentrations of these metal ions in these forages were analyzed using UNICAM 919 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). From the results, Cu showed the highest concentration level of all the other trace metals analyzed. The concentration level of Cu in the roots of bitter leaf, sweet potatoes, Okra  and Elephant grass in the order of ranking are 4.33± 0.30 (mg/g), 3.87± 0.40 (mg/g), 0.97± 0.10 (mg/g) and 0.84±0.05 (mg/g) respectively. For the leaves of the forages the concentration of Cu are 3.63± 0.30 (mg/g) for Okro, 2.60± 0.30 (mg/g) for sweet potatoes, 1.60±0.08 (mg/g) for Bitter leaf and 0.69 ± 0.05 (mg/g) for elephant grass. The rest concentrations for Pb, Co and Cd in the root, stems and leaves of the forages are carefully tabulated. Co showed the least concentration level of all the other trace metals. The trend of the concentrations of the trace metals can be put as Cu>Pb>Cd>Co. It was observed from the results that the forage leaves contains higher concentration of trace metals than their roots and stems, with Cu and Pb concentration levels being higher than those of Co and Cd in all samples. Hence this higher concentration imposes toxicity to the ecosystem through the food chain and as well results to physiological effects, though there are normal requirements in small quantities of these metals needed to improve the status of nutrition in humans and livestock.

 

SYNTHESIS OF 3-ANILINOPROPANAMIDES

1V. C. Agwada and 2*L. A. Nnamonu

1Formerly of Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (deceased)

2Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi

Abstract

This work reports a facile and elegant synthesis of 3-anilinopropanamides which are intermediates in the preparation of the 4-aminoquinoline nucleus, in up to 90% yield. They were prepared by an acid-catalysed Michael addition using acrylamide and anilines substituted at the 2-, 3- and 4- positions with methyl or methoxy groups. Para-toluene sulphonic acid was used as catalyst. The result of this work opens up a worthwhile route to the 4-aminoquinoline nucleus which is central in any effort towards the preparation of quinoline-based anti malarial agents.

 

ONE – CYCLE SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN RIVER BENUE

*I. S. Eneji and R. Sha’Ato

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Agrochemical Technology

University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2373 Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn and Zn) were monitored for twelve consecutive months in River Benue using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. The monthly investigation represented a one-seasonal cycle namely: rainy-, dry- and rainy-seasons. Analysis of the results shows that the concentrations of most heavy metals were higher during the dry season (Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Mn) probably due to concentration of those metals in the River (reduced volume of water). Cd levels reduced by a factor of two (2) in the dry season suggesting that it has high affinity with the sediments in the River while Zn levels increased throughout the cycle suggesting a gradual build – up of Zn in the River. The high level of the Cd in the rainy seasons may signify inputs from run-off from the upland to the river. The general order of the metals throughout the seasons was: Fe> Cr > Pb > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd.

 

SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXATION OF N‘-[-PHENYLMETHYLIDENE]BENZENECARBOTHIO HYDRAZIDE WITH Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) METAL IONS.

1I.E. Otuokere and 2E.N.Orjiako

1Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike .

2Department of Industrial Chemistry, Anambra State University, Uli.

Abstract

A novel ligand,  N’-[-phenylmethylidene]benzenecarbothiohydrazide  was synthesized by the reaction of  benzenecarbothiohydrazide and benzaldehyde in 1:1 ratio. The Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) derivatives of N’-[-phenylmethylidene]benzenecarbothiohydrazide  were also synthesized. The ligand and metal complexes were characterized based on molecular weight, IR, electronic spectra, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Their spectroscopic characterization suggested coordination of the ligand to the metal ions through the >C=N and C=S. The complexes with [M(L)2] showed a square-planar geometry. 

 

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METALS IN FRESH WATER FISH SPECIES SOLD IN ONITSHA MARKET NIGERIA

O EZIGBO

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry; Anambra State University, Uli. Nigeria

Abstract

Concentrations of the heavy metals Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury were determined in the four selected fresh water fish species sold in Onitsha Market. Samples of fishes were collected from Onitsha market over a period of three days. Generally fish species accumulate metals in the order As >Cr>Pb>Hg except in Orechromis niloticus where the order is Pb>As and Cr> Hg. Results obtained indicated that the fish species were contaminated and the contamination of the fish species by the heavy metals differ with fish species. However, levels of the metals in fish samples were generally below the WHO and FAO maximum permissive limits (mg/kg) of Arsenic (0.5), Lead (0.2), Chromium (0.5), Mercury (<0.05), and hence pose no consumption risk. 

 

       BIO-DIRECTED ASSAY OF THE ANTITUBERCULOSIS ACTIVITIES OF THE STEM BARK                 OF FICUS SUR 

1,2N.N. Ibekwe, 1P.O. Oladosu, 1A.T. Orishadipe, 2O.O. Aiyelaagbe, 2A.A. Adesomoju, 3C.E. Barry and 1J.I. Okogun

1National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

3Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute

for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA

Abstract

Tuberculosis continues to be a major health threat with more than one-third of the world’s population infected. This is aggravated by the spread of HIV and drug resistant strains of tuberculosis, stressing the urgency for new antituberculosis agents. Sequential extraction was carried out on the stem bark of an indigenous Nigerian plant, Ficus sur, using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Preliminary screening of the extracts using the broth dilution method, showed all extracts to be promising with in vitro activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG at MICs of ≤ 2 mg/ml. Bioassay guided fractionation of the active hexane extract led to the isolation of an active principle, with an MIC of 7.8 µg/ml. Analysis of the spectroscopic data led to the identification of the compound as α-amyrin acetate.

 

POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED POWDER AS A WATER PURITANT.

*M. B Dalen,  J S Pam and A. Izang

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Abstract

Moringa Oleifera seeds were analyzed for chemical composition. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of saponnins, flavonoids and alkaloids while proximate elemental analysis by AAS and colorimetric methods showed the presence of sodium (15.2130±0.10ppm),aluminum (12.211±0.012) potassium (14.2130±0.013ppm) and sulphate (1.7179±0.011 ppm).  The results of test trials on raw water samples using moringa and chlorine (a standard disinfectant) dosages are comparable and encouraging. These results indicate that moringa oleifera seeds powder has a double advantage as a coagulant and the presence of phytochemicals confers on it antimicrobial properties with potentials for use as a water clarifier and disinfectant for rural communities.

 

RICE HUSK ASH AS A NEW FLATTING EXTENDER IN RED OXIDE PRIMER

D. Igwebike Ossi

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria                                               

Abstract

The high silica content of rice husk ash promotes its attractiveness as a potential bio-resource for various silica-based industrial applications. In this study, the applicability of rice husk ash (RHA) as a flatting agent in red oxide primer was explored in comparison with some known commercial extenders (fillers), namely calcium carbonate (CC) and silica flour (SF.) Granular RHA obtained by controlled incineration of rice husks at a temperature of 6500C and duration of 4 hrs, was ground to obtain RHA flour of smaller particle size (32-106 microns) The RHA flour, CC and SF extenders were sieved with a standard sieve of aperture, 63microns (µm) to obtain a fairly uniform particle size range of 32-63µm used in the formulation of the red oxide primers. The gloss levels of the dry films of the primers were measured with a gloss meter at 200, 600 and 850

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