JCSN, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2012

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS WITHIN CALABAR METROPOLIS

 1K A. Ibe, 2T N Nganje and 2A E Edet

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, PMB 1221. Effurun. Warri. 2Department of Geology, University of Calabar, PMB 1515, Calabar

Abstract

Twenty two soil samples from Calabar metropolis were analyzed for total organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; using the Blackey and Walkey titration method, gas chromatography and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the soils of Calabar Metropolis ranged from 0.34 to 6.21% with a mean value of 4.05±3.80%. The concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for Calabar Metropolis soils ranged from 1.8  to 334.43µgg-1 with a mean concentration of 50.31± 81.09µgg-1. The PAH diagnostic ratio used, showed a predominance of petroleum and liquid fossil fuel input in the soil PAHs. The setting had more exogenous than endogenous input .The soil Benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent, suggests a potential human health impact.

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS WITHIN CALABAR METROPOLIS

 1K A. Ibe, 2T N Nganje and 2A E Edet

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, PMB 1221. Effurun. Warri. 2Department of Geology, University of Calabar, PMB 1515, Calabar

Abstract

Twenty two soil samples from Calabar metropolis were analyzed for total organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; using the Blackey and Walkey titration method, gas chromatography and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the soils of Calabar Metropolis ranged from 0.34 to 6.21% with a mean value of 4.05±3.80%. The concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for Calabar Metropolis soils ranged from 1.8  to 334.43µgg-1 with a mean concentration of 50.31± 81.09µgg-1. The PAH diagnostic ratio used, showed a predominance of petroleum and liquid fossil fuel input in the soil PAHs. The setting had more exogenous than endogenous input .The soil Benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent, suggests a potential human health impact.

PERTURBATION EFFECTS OF SOLVENT ON THE ELECTRONIC INTENSITY OF SOLVATED CHROMOPHORES

1*S.A. Ahmed, 2N. O. Obi-Egbedi and 2I. Iweibo

 1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

                           2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract

As an extension of our earlier work on the theory of electronic intensity of an ensemble of absorbing molecules in solution or condensed media, [Idowu Iweibo et al, (1990), J. Chem. Phys., 93(4), 2238], we present a general expression originating from quantum-mechanical perturbation treatment of electronic intensities and Hamiltonian operators for the system (HA and HB) of an absorber and a perturber respectively. The expression is  related to the Longuet-Higgins’ definition of solute-solvent interaction and fitted into linear regression mode for the determination of transition polarizabilities of 9H-xanthene, 9H-xathone and 9H-xanthione. The results obtained conform to those earlier obtained when all possible interaction modes are considered.

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE NUTRIENTS VALUE OF XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM AND COLOCASSIA ESCULENTA FRESH LEAVES.

  1. P. Berezi, A. Soroh and D. Mark -Manuel

Department of Chemistry, Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama, Brass-Island Nigeria.

Abstract

Vegetables are rich sources of micro nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocassia esculenta fresh leaves also contain these micronutrients and vitamins but they will require some form of processing to make them suitable for human consumption. The processing methods adopted for this work are Blanching (B) and Drying (D) of the vegetables. The effects of processing methods on the phytochemical and mineral values of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocassia esculenta fresh leaves were investigated. Samples(100gm) of fresh and processed leaves of both species were analyzed for moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate, mineral elements and vitamin.  Results obtained show that, moisture has the highest proximate composition (84.5 ±5-1%) while crude fat has the least value (1.4 ±0.3%). Potassium (k) has the highest mineral content in the sample (4170.5 ±208.5mg) and riboflavin is least (0.4±0.1mg). For the processing effect on the chemical composition, the values obtained ranged from (p<0.08) to (p<0.68) with crude protein having the highest reduction percentage. The overall results show that the reduction effect is greatest in the drying method, which agrees with other reported values of other species of cocoyam leaves. The low values for mineral sodium makes the vegetables a good diet supplement for hypertensive patients; they are found to be within the acceptable daily dietary requirement.    

SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM) LEVELS IN AMBIENT AIR OF OGOJA URBAN CENTRE, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

*1S. O. Ngele and 2P. A. C. Okoye

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, P. M. B  053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

2Department of pure and Industrial Chemistry Nnamdi Azikwe University, Akwa.

Abstract

This study monitored the total suspended particulate(TSP) matter concentration , particle size less than or equal to ten micrometer (Pm10) and the two and half micrometer(pm2.5) particle diameter in Ogoja urban centre ambient air for four months in the dry season and four months in the wet season.  The results show dry, wet and annual mean pm2.5 values of 15.60 ±3.38, 3.55±2.30 and 9.57±2.84mgm-3 respectively.Pm10 gave values of 52.30±17.82, 8.42    ±3.91 and 30.34±10.87mgm-3 for the dry, wet seasons and annual mean  concentrations  respectively. The TSP seasonal values were 85.44±29.43 and 18.34±16.62mgm-3 for the dry and wet seasons and 51.89 ± 23.02 mgm-3 for the annual mean. The mean seasonal and annual concentrations of the parameters obtained in this study were within the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) and WHO threshold limit values for clean air.

INVESTIGATION OF POLLUTION INDEX OF ORAMIRIUKWA, NWORIE AND OTAMIRI RIVERS, IMO STATE, NIGERIA.

*U.U. Egereonu, L.N. Ukiwe, J. A. Edet and C.E. Ogukwe

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B . 1526, Owerri. Nigeria

Abstract

Investigation of the pollution index of Oramiriukwa, Nworie and Otamiri rivers, Imo State, Nigeria was studied. Results obtained of physicochemical analysis conducted on samples collected from the three sample stations revealed that 1.039, 1.051, and 1.051 critical pollution index values for temperature were obtained for Otamiri, Nworie, and Oramiriukwa rivers respectively, while the total dissolved solids critical pollution index values were 0.039, 0.087, and 0.020 for Otamiri, Nworie and Oramiriukwa sample stations respectively. However, critical pollution index values of 1.311, 2.584, and 2.588 for chromium in the three sample sites indicated relative chromium pollution of the three river bodies.

EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS (ANF) IN TWO CULTIVARS OF FRESH COCOYAM (COLOCASIA ESCULENTA AND XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLUM)  LEAVES.

  1. P. Berezi, A. Soroh, J. Goldie  and  D. Mark-Manuel

Department of Chemistry, Bayelsa State College of Education, P.M.B. 74, Yenagoa, Okpoama, Brass-Island. Nigeria.

Abstract

The effect of processing on the anti-nutritional composition of fresh leaves of two species of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (A) and Xanthosoma sagittifolum(B)) were investigated. The vegetables were blanched and cooked (BC) and dried and cooked (DC) then analyzed for the anti-nutritional factors (ANF): oxalate, tannin, phytate and saponin using the A.O.A.C standard methods. For fresh leaves of C. esculenta the oxalate, tannin, phytate and saponin values are; 0.82±0.22, 0.68±0.08, 0.55±0.05 and 0.75±0.25 respectively and 0.70±0.11, 0.76±0.16, 0.45±0.07 and 0.77±0.16 for X.sagittifolum. Blanching and drying significantly lowered the levels of all anti-nutritional components of the analyzed vegetables and these values were found to be lower than the range reported for some studied vegetables. Blanching and drying can therefore be recommended as a means of reducing the undesired anti-nutritional components.

DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF  HEAVY METALS IN THE SOIL SEDIMENT WITHIN  NEW AUTO SPARE PARTS, NKPOR-AGU, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

*P.E Omuku, P.A.C Okoye, and P.N Ekemezie

Pure & Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

Abstract

Soil samples were collected within the vicinity of New Auto Spare Parts, Nkpor-Agu, Anambra State, Nigeria.  They  were digested with acid mixture  of HF (40%) and Aqua regia for their  total heavy metal load.  Modified Tessier Sequential Extraction Scheme (SES) was used to fractionate the metal  contents into exchangeable, acid extractable (carbonate), reducible, oxidisable and residua fractions as a means of assessing the level of bioavailability  (sum of exchangeable and carbonate) and mobility of the metals.   The highest mean total  concentration of 24.69mg/kg was associated with Nickel while 0.01mg/kg (least value) was implicated in Arsenic.  The observed trend in the average total concentration of metal was Ni>Cr>Hg>Zn>Cd>As. The speciation studies showed a bioavailability trend of Cd>Ni>Cr>Hg>Zn>As.  The range  in bioavailability  was 7.41 to 49.91%.  The mean partitioning of the metals gave a trend of carbonate > oxidisable > reducible> exchangeable > Residual. The high percentage bioavailability  of 49.91% associated with Cds call for greater attention to reduce the level of release of Cd to the area under investigation.  The level of mercury and arsenic  reported in this work is not at the high side but adequate care should be taken to ensure that these metals do not  exceed their threshold limit in the environment.

DECOLOURIZATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION CONTAINING REACTIVE VIOLET 1 USING POLYURETHANE FOAM

*A. Giwa and A. Sunday

Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Abstract

The use of ether-type polyurethane foam (E-PUF) as an alternative adsorbent was investigated with the objective of decolorizing textile dye from aqueous solutions. The study was performed using Reactive Violet 1 (RV1) in a glass beaker containing the PUF. The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dye concentration, time, surface area and pH on the deocolourization efficiency of the PUF. It was observed that under the experimental conditions the removal of the chosen dyes was over 80%. The batch studies also indicated that an acidic environment facilitated the adsorption of the dye by PUF. By means of the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity for the dye was 4.50 mg g-1. The correlation coefficient of the isotherm was > 0.98 for the dye, suggesting that adsorption entailed the formation of a monolayer.

DETERMINATION OF LEAD AND ZINC LEVELS IN PETROL ATTENDANTS IN SOME MAJOR FILLING STATIONS IN OWERRI METROPOLIS USING FINGERNAIL AS INDICATOR

*1U.U. Egereonu, 1L.N. Ukiwe and 1J.C. Egereonu

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri. Nigeria

2Department. of Geophysics, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

Abstract

Fingernails, collected from five petrol attendants including the black marketers in major filling stations were digested using acid mixture of hydrochloric acid and trioxonitrate (v) acid in the ratio of 1:1. The levels of Pb and Zn were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. Result indicated the presence of lead and zinc in fingernails. The mean and standard deviation values for Pb were  0.071mg/dm3 and 0.029 respectively. The mean value for zinc was 1.91mgdm-3 and standard deviation 0.0102.

3, 9–DIMETHOXYPTEROCARPIN [(-)-HOMOPTEROCARPIN], A FLAVONOID ISOLATED FROM THE RED DYE EXTRACT OF PTEROCARPUS ERINANCEOUS PLANT

1*A.O Adetuyi, 2R. Pandey, 2K.S Babu and 2J.M Rao

1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology .P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria.

2 Natural Products Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division I. Indian Institute of Chemical Technology    (IICT), Habsiguda, Hyderabad- 500607, India.

Abstract

The red- dye extract of P. erinaceous afforded a white crystalline solid identified as 3,9- dimethoxy  pterocarpin [(-)-homocarpin]. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques involving ID and 2D NMR experiments (one and two dimensional analysis) and with the aid of literature data.  The fragmentation behaviour of the solid was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

 

SYNTHESIS OF ACID DYES DERIVED FROM 2-AMINOTHIAZOLES AND THEIR DYEING PERFORMANCE ON WOOL AND SILK FABRICS

1*O.R.A. Iyun, 2K.A. Bello and  3A. Jauro

*1Department of Chemistry, 2Department of Textile Science and Technology,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

3Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

Abstract                                                            

Monoazo acid dyes based on 2-aminoheterocycles were prepared using J-, Nevile and Winther’s-, and H-acids with 4-sulphonic-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone as the coupling components. The synthesized dyes were applied on wool and silk fabrics. The dyes were found to give a wide range of colour shades with very good depth, brightness, and levelness. The visible absorption spectra and physical properties of the dyes were also investigated. The percentage dyebath exhaustion on the fabrics was found to be excellent and the dyed fabrics showed very good fastness to light and washing.

SOME HEAVY METALS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS STREET DUST

*1U.U. Egereonu, 1L.N. Ukiwe, 1C. O. Okoroego, 1C.E. Ogukwe and 2J.C. Egereonu

1Department of Chemistry,Federal University of Technology,P.M.B . 1526, Owerri. Nigeria

5Department. of Geophysics, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

Abstract

Street dusts were collected in Enugu metropolis by applying random sampling at the samplying station. Result of analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) showed that Iron (Fe) was the highest heavy metal present in the street dusts totaling 72.1592 mg/kg at Uwani sample station, while lead (Pb) (0.0476 mg/kg) was the least heavy metal present at Obeagu sampling station. Appreciable amount of zinc (Zn) was also present in the five sample areas namely; Uwani (2.0697 mg/kg), Agani (3.2130 mg/kg), Achara Layout (2.0622 mg/kg), Garki (1.1650 mg/kg), and Obeagu (1.1892 mg/kg). It was also observed that heavy metal presence (except for Fe and Zn) in the five sample stations were within Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) permissible standards.

EFFECT OF UREA AND MELAMINE BASED PRECONDENSATES ON THE EXHAUSTION, FIXATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF REACTIVE DYE ON COTTON

1*N.S Gin, 2K. A. Bello, 3A. Q. Ibrahim, 4P. M. Dass and 5D. E. A. Boryo

1,4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology,

Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic , P. M. B 0094, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Environmental Management Technology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P. M. B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria

5Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 0231 Bauchi, Nigeria

 Abstract

Formaldehyde based low molecular precondensates (Fixers) always have very important role in processing of woven fabrics. Two important applications of these chemicals are in fixing dyes and improvement of crease resistant behaviour of fabrics. The synthesis of a series of precondesates by the reaction of formaldehyde with various percent mole ratios of urea and melamine was described. The dyed cotton specimens were impregnated with fixers and cured at 1500C for 5 minutes using acetic acid curing catalyst. The cotton specimens were dyed at various pH and temperature in order to establish the optimum conditions for dyeing. The % exhaustion, % fixation and color-fastness to washing are reported and found to be depended on the fixing efficiency of precondensates to reactive dye. Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were obtained when the dye was applied at pH 11 and 300C for 60 minutes.  The precondensate showed good fixing efficacy. Washing fastness and fixation properties of the dyed samples were improved.

 

EFFECT OF COOKING ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CANAVALIA AFRICANA.

*1A.S. Abitogun and 2S.V.Omosuli

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, 2Department of  Food Science and Technology,

 Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

P.M.B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Canavalia africana seeds used for this study were obtained from a bush near Igbara-Oke, Ondo State, Nigeria.  The seeds were divided into two portions; the first portion was milled to flour, while the second portion was cooked for 3 hours,  sundried and milled to flour. The chemical compositions of the fruits, the raw and cooked seed flour were analysed in other to evaluate their nutrient level. The macro minerals detected in both samples were; sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and the micro mineral iron. potassium had the highest concentrations in both samples; followed by calcium. manganese and copper were also detected in the cooked sample. The seed composition compared favourably with those reported for many conventional edible leguminous plant.Its incorporation in diet along with other protein sources is therefore suggested as a way of enhancing the utilization of this wild leguminous plant.

RICE HUSK ASH AS NEW EXTENDER IN TEXTURED PAINT

C.D Igwebike-Ossi

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

Abstract

 In this study, the applicability of Rice husk ash (RHA), as extender in paint was explored. Rice husk ash, obtained by controlled incineration of rice husks at a temperature of 6500C was reduced to finer particle size to obtain RHA flour, which was sieved to a particle size range of 63-106microns and used in the formulation of textured paint. The paint was qualitatively compared with those produced using some known commercial extenders of same particle size range. RHA revealed a remarkably good thickening effect, far superior to those of calcium carbonate (standard) and silica flour. This superiority was evident in the viscosity values of 180,142 and 75 poises obtained for textured paints produced with RHA, silica flour, and calcium carbonate respectively at 15% level, while 10% level of RHA still showed a high viscosity value of 135 poises.

SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM SEDIMENTS OF RIVER BENUE, NIGERIA.

*I.S. Eneji, ا F. O. Oketunde and R. Sha’Ato

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Agrochemical Technology,

University of Agriculture P. M. B. 2373 Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

 Part 5 in the series of chemicals in River Benue.

Abstract

A four – stage sequential extraction techniques has been applied to sediments collected from two sampling stations (10km apart) and at two different depths of River Benue. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were determined in the various extracts using AAS. The results of the analysis shows that the mean concentration levels (µg/kg) of heavy metals in the sediments were Cd (237 ± 68), Cu (1677 ± 942), Fe (7456 ± 3414), Pb (1171 ± 440), Mn (5146 ± 3772), Ni (1305 ± 965), Zn (8943 ± 2915). The limit of detection for different heavy metals was found to be between 0.001 – 0.01µg/mL for the various extraction stages. The pattern of the concentration abundance of the metals in the sediment was in decreasing order Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. Despite the least ranking of Pb and Cd, there concentration in the sediment cannot be ignored due to their potential toxicity. Finally, anthropogenic inputs tend to contribute significantly to metal fractions extracted than of natural occurrence in the parent rock.

CHARACTERIZATION OF PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO) SEED OIL AS A BIODIESEL PRODUCED THROUGH KOH-CATALYSED TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

1O.J. Abayeh, A. Ismail*1 and 2O.M. Abayeh

1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria.

2Industrial Training Fund, Training Division, Warri. Nigeria

Abstract

Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use of those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel world wide. In this research the seed oil of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) was investigated for its viability as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from the seed using petroleum ether and on a dry matter basis found to be within 47-48%. The oil quality characteristics of the seed oil were; iodine value (IV), 109.5g iodine/100g oil, peroxide value (PV), 25meq peroxide/kg oil, acid value (AV), 9.43mg KOH/kg oil, saponification value (SV), 119.21meqKOH/kg oil, free fatty acid (FFA), 4.74% of oil, specific gravity (S.G), 0.90g/ml oil and kinematic viscosity, 29.13mm2/s at 30°C. The oil was transesterified using methanol and potassium hydroxide with a yield of 82 % wt biodiesel. Fuel tests on the cucurbita pepo seed oil methyl ester gave a high cetane number, 68.2 and a high flash point of 190°C. Other fuel properties of the biodiesel assayed were cloud point, pour point, kinematic viscosity, density and calorific value and the results were; 5°C, -2°C, 2.20mm2/s, 881kgm-3 and 12127J respectively. The same tests were conducted on diesel D2 which was used as a standard and the results obtained were as follows; flash point, 140°C, cloud point, 0°C, pour point, -2°C, kinematic viscosity, 2.65mm2/s, density, 835kgm-3 and calorific value, 12188J. The results obtained for the biodiesel was also compared with the American and European standards for biodiesel (ASTM D6751 and EN14214) and with other investigated oils from literature and were found to fall within acceptable limits, implying that Cucurbita pepo seed oil methyl ester could be used alone or as blends with diesel D2 in diesel combustion engines in tropical climates like Nigeria.

EFFECT OF LOCALLY PYROLYSED MAIZE COB BIOCHAR ON NUTRIENT STATUS OF SOIL USED FOR OIL PALM CULTIVATION

*1E.G.Uwumarongie-Ilori, 2V.O Idode, 3F.E. Okieimen and 1F.I.Obahiagbon

1Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, Benin City, Edo State

2College of Education, Ekiadolor, Benin City

3Geo Environmental of Climate Change Adaptation Research Center, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

 Abstract

In the cultivation of oil palm, increasing crop productivity through improving soil quality is necessary. This is achieved when various inorganic and organic materials with good potential in improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties are used. Biochar, a co-product of thermo-chemical conversion of ligno-cellulosic materials into advanced biofuels, can be used as a soil amendment to enhance the sustainability of plant biomass harvest. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of biochar produced by local pyrolysis of maize cob on nutrient status of soil used for oil palm plantation and using maize (Zea may) a fast growing crop that can be intercropped with the oil palm in assessing the uptake of the nutrient from the amended soil. The mean nutrient status of the biochar was K (0.46%), N (0.05%), Na (0.01%), Ca (0.39%), Mg (0.61%) and P (0.11). The soil used for the study was sandy loam and slightly acidic with pH of 5.40. Amendment studies conducted using various amount (2%, 5%, 10% and 20%) of biochar showed relative increase in nutrient status of soil with increase in amount of biochar added to soil. The study therefore revealed the potential of locally pyrolysed maize cob in increasing soil nutrient status of soil used in oil palm cultivation.

DISTRIBUTION AND SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM THE LAGOS LAGOON, NIGERIA

*1T. Oluseyi, 1K. Olayinka, 1B. Alo and 2R. M. Smith

1Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK

Abstract

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in the surface sediment of the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria. The total concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 9.76 – 1043.96 µg/kg dry weight. A correlation existed between the sediment organic carbon content and the total PAHs concentration with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.856, suggesting that sediment organic carbon content played an important role in controlling the PAHs levels in the sediments. Four origin indices or concentration ratios of PAH isomer pairs were used to evaluate the suitability of these compounds as tracers to distinguish between the contamination arising from different sources. A critical appraisal of the PAH indices, therefore, suggested that PAHs contamination in the Lagos lagoon complex seems to be originated both from the high temperature pyrolytic process as well as from the petrogenic source, indicating a mixed PAH input pattern. 

 

ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS AND SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SOILS OF MAJOR DOMESTIC DUMPSITES IN AKURE, NIGERIA

1I.O. Ojo, *2J.O. Ojo and 3O. Osibanjo

1 Chemistry Department, College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

2* Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure,  Ondo State. Nigeria.

3 Chemistry Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Heavy metals and soil physiochemical parameters were identified as environmental pollutants in some major domestic dumpsites in Akure city of Ondo State. The pH of the domestic sites ranged between 7.26 – 8.19 with mean value of 7.72 4 + 0.5. The organic carbon for the domestic dumpsites ranged from 0.28 to 1.18% while the organic matter was between 0.48% and 2.05%. The concentrations of Zn. Fe. Cu. Pb. Cd. Ni and Cr in ug/g in all the domestic dumpsites A, B, C ranged between 320.40 – 441.00, 169.60 -547.20, 37.20 – 120.00, 24.20 – 249.20, 1.76 – 2.55, 15.60 – 19.20 and 17.06 – 22.10 respectively.

PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FUNGAL GROWTH ON THE OIL QUALITY PARAMETERS OF CANARIUM SCHWEINFURTHII ENGL. SEED OIL.

1L.A. Magashi and 2O.J. Abayeh

1Chemistry Department, College of Education Gidan-Waya P.M.B.1024, Kafanchan, Kaduna. Nigeria.

2Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi Nigeria.

Abstract

This paper reports the preliminary results of the deliberate infection of Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. Oil seeds with the following fungi Mucor ( M. racemosus and M. rouxii) and Rhizophus ( R. stolonifer) with the object of altering the quality parameters of the seed oils.  The seeds were divided into batches and deliberately infected by fungi and their oil quality parameters determined over five weeks. The oil quality parameters of the infected seeds were compared to that of the uninfected as control.  Oil extraction was by soxhlet, with petroleum ether as a solvent and oil yield calculated on a dry matter basis and found to be between 37.78-42.50%. Other quality parameters investigated had the following ranges iodine value[IV] 13.50-88.12mg/g, saponification value[SV] 11.22-353.43 mgKOH/g, peroxide value[PV] 10-30 meq/kg, acid value[AV] 12.58-180.70 mg/KOH and free fatty acid[FFA] 6.32-90.80 mg/KOH. The results show definite variations in oil quality parameters with fungal growth duration, which indicates that fungal infection of the seeds, can be used to alter some quality parameters of C. schweinfurthii seed oil.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE BACTEROCIN PRODUCING CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM SELECTED TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS IN NIGERIA

*I.A Okoro, P.C Ojimelukwe, U.N Ekwenye, B. Akaeru, I. L Prince-will Ogbonna and B.Offia-Olua

Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Abia State, Nigeria.

Abstract        

Lactic acid bacteria from freshly prepared ‘Ogi’ and ‘Kunun’ were isolated by plating on nutrient agar modified with 1 glacial acetic acid. The identification of the isolates was carried out using biochemical methods. The identified isolates (Lactobacillus planetarium, Lactobacillus sake, Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentum) were screened for their ability to produce bacterocin against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aures) using the pour plate method. The isolated organisms inhibited different food borne pathogens with different zones of inhibition. The highest was exhibited by Lactobacillus fermentum on Escherichia coli (38mm) while the least was by Lactobacillus acidophilus on Staphylococcus aureus (18mm). Fresh Ogi constituted a better source of lactic acid bacteria than that of Kunun. The antimicrobial activity of the four Latic Acid Bacteria? strains was inactivated by the addition of proteinase K, thus confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. The bacterocin of lactic acid bacteria have potential application for assessing and improving food quality, and safety.

EFFECT OF FERMENTATION AND BOILING ON THE CHEMICAL AND FUNCTION PROPERTIES OF GRAY NICKER SEED (CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA . F.) FLOUR.

1E.P Berezi, 2T.G Abayomi and 3R.O.A Adelagun

 1 Chemistry Department, Bayelsa State College Of Education, Okpoama Brass-Island

2 Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department, Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko

3 Chemistry Department, Wesely University of Science and Technology, Ondo.

Abstract

The chemical and functional properties of fermented and boiled flour of Caesalpinia bonducella (f) seed were investigated using standard methods. Results of the proximate composition (%) of the raw, fermented and boiled samples respectively are; moisture (11.41 ± 0.64, 10.25 ± 1.0 and 10.13 ± 0.28), crude fat ( 9.16 ± 0.09, 4.98 ± 0.14 and 3.95 ± 0.10) crude fibre (1.43 ± 0.02, 2.13 ± 0.02 and 2.73 + 0.11), crude protein (19.63 ± 0.05, 24.03 ± and 19.77 ± 0.29), ash (1.78 ± 0.83, 2.08 ± 0.01 and 3.01 ± 0.05) and carbohydrate (61.54 ± 0.54, 53.65 ± 0.01 and 13.38 ± 0.47). The mineral content (mg /100g) of raw, fermented and boiled samples respectively are iron (18.12 ± 0.03, 3.89 ± 0.08 and 2.15 ± 0.03), magnesium (226.0 ± 0.00, 711.14 ± 0.94 and 764.29 ± 3.79), sodium (890.0 ± 5.0, 3.32 ± 0.19 and 462.54 ± 1.99), calcium (93.22 ± 0.34, 67.82 ± 0.17 and 0.52 ± 0.01) and phosphorous (1514.05 ± 5.1, 1347.69 ± 0.82 and 1980.00 ± 10.00). The functional properties of the raw, fermented and boiled samples respectively are; water absorption capacity [WAC](198.5 ± 0.29, 191.2 ± 0.28, and 160.5 ± 0.60), oil absorption capacity [OAC] (150.15 ± 0.15, 165.2 ± 0.25 and 130.4 ± 0.2), foaming capacity [FC] (17.2 ± 1.18, 25.3 ± 0.40 and 20.60 ± 0.30), foaming stability [FS] (1.00 ± 0.00, 2.00 ± 0.00 and 2.00 ± 0.00), emulsion capacity [EC] (26.32 ± 0.98, ± 32.90 ± 0.02 and 36.00 ± 0.60) emulsion stability [ES] (60.0 ± 0.30, 55.0 ± 0.75 and 45.0 ± 0.8) least gelation [LG] (6.0 ± 0.0, 4.0 ± 0.0 and 6.0 ± 0.0) and bulk density [BD] (46.41 ± 4.27, 33.81 ± 0.37 and 58.65 ± 0.91). This investigation has shown that fermentation and boiling processes has an effect on the parameters investigated and the seed itself has great potential for therapeutic applications and nutritional diets.

EXPERIMENTAL AND QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE CORROSION INHIBITION OF MILD STEEL IN ACIDIC MEDIA BY MALACHITE GREEN DYE

C.O. Akalezi, C.K. Enenebaku C.E. Ogukwe and *E.E. Oguzie.

Electrochemistry  and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract

The inhibition performance of malachite green dye (MGD) on mild steel corrosion in 1.0 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions was tested by gravimetric technique in the temperature range 303-333 K. Results showed that MG inhibited the corrosion of mild steel in both acid media at all temperatures studied and inhibition efficiency increased with MGD concentration. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface in the acid media was found to obey Langmuir isotherm. Temperature studies revealed a reduction in inhibition efficiency with rise in temperature while corrosion activation energies were higher in the presence of the inhibitor. A modeling package employing molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics has been used to simulate the docking of a single molecule of MGD onto a clean iron (110) surface. The study suggests that molecular modeling and calculations can be used to predict the inhibition performance of compounds.

SPECTROSCOPIC AND DYEING PERFORMANCE OF DISPERSE DYES DERIVED FROM 2-AMINO-5-NITROTHIAZOLE

*K. A. Bello, B. U. Ausa and A. Giwa

Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Abstract

The synthesis of disperse dyes derived from 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole was carried out and their spectroscopic and dyeing properties examined.  The electronic absorption spectra cover a λmax range of 453–654nm in acetone at uniformly high absorption intensity between 5.00 x 104 – 5.93 x 104 lmol-1cm-1 and gave bright intense hues from red to blue on polyester fabrics, due to the variations in polarity.  The dyes also exhibited positive solvatochromism with increase in polarity of the solvents and positive halochromism when a few drops of hydrochloric acid were added to the ethanolic solution of the dyes. Dyeing of polyester with these dyes was carried out with different concentration of carrier and it was found that exhaustion increased with increase carrier concentration and the depth of shade became deeper. The dyed fabrics generally showed good to excellent washing, perspiration, and light fastness properties on polyester woven fabric.  The remarkable degree of levelness and brightness after washing is indicative of good penetration and excellent affinity of these dyes for the polyester fabric due to the accumulation of polar groups.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MINICHIDA STREAM, PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

*1C.C Obunwo, 2A. C Chindah and 2S. A Braide

1 Department of Chemistry; 2Institute of Pollution Studies,

Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt.

Absract

Water and sediment from the Minichida stream were sampled weekly during the dry season in order to monitor changes that would occur in the physico – chemical characteristics of the stream and possibly establish pollution indicators. Levels of a number of parameters including heavy metals were measured in both surface water and sediment during early dry and late dry season periods. The parameters included pH, conductivity, turbidity, total hydrocarbon, nutrients as well as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel and Manganese. The results show that the water body is slightly acidic with higher turbidity during the late dry season. With the exception of Cadmium, the concentrations of the metals in the sediment were higher during the late dry season period indicating declining water quality. There is thus the need to regulate the discharge of municipal effluents into this freshwater system.

COPPER AND LEAD IMMOBILIZATION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL USING NON-TOXIC INORGANIC AGENTS. EVALUATION BY SINGLE AND SEQUENTIAL LEACHING TESTS

*1R.A. Wuana, 2F.E. Okieimen, 3M.S. Iorungwa and 4J.A. Ikpeke

1Analytical Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, 970001, Nigeria.

2GeoEnvironmental & Climate Change Adaptation Centre, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

3Department of Chemical Sciences University of Mkar, Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria.

4Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Abstract

Limestone, charcoal, kaolinite and bulk clay were assessed as low-cost and ecologically non-invasive agents for Cu and Pb immobilization in contaminated soil. A moderately contaminated sandy clay loam was collected from the vicinity of an active dumpsite at the Benue Industrial Layout, Makurdi, Nigeria and spiked with Cu and Pb to simulate higher levels of metal contamination. The immobilizing agents were added to the soil at 10, 20 and 30% w/w and incubated for one month at room temperature. Ca(NO3)2 (0.5 M) single extractions and the three-step sequential extractions proposed by the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR method) were performed before and after soil amendments to assess the extent of metal immobilization. Ca(NO3)2 extractions showed that the immobilization efficiencies of the inorganic agents were generally high (66 – 92%) and increased with the agent dose, apparently varying in the order: limestone < charcoal < kaolinite ≈ bulk clay for Cu and limestone < kaolinite < bulk clay < charcoal for Pb. BCR sequential extractions showed that the inorganic agents caused marked reductions (3- to 15-fold) in Cu and Pb mobility and changes in their speciation patterns in soil as most of the hitherto mobile metals became associated with the less bioavailable Fe/Mn-oxide, organic matter and residual forms. Since metal mobility is related to its bioavailability, these immobilizing agents may reduce risks resulting from Cu and Pb contamination of soil.

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