JCSN, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2011

SYNTHESIS, COMPLEXATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRIORGANOGERMANIUM (IV) WITH 4-(METHYLSULFANYL)-2-{(PHENYLCARBONYL)AMINO}BUTANOIC ACID.

 

I.E. Otuokere1 and A.J. Chinweuba2

1Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike .

 2Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, Anambra State University, Uli.

Abstract

4-(methylsulfanyl)-2-[(phenylcarbonyl)amino]butanoic acid have been synthesized by the reaction of benzoyl chloride with 2-amino-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Triorganogermanium(IV) complexes of the type Ph3GeL, Bu3GeL and Me3GeL (where L = 4-(methylsulfanyl)-2-[(phenylcarbonyl)amino]butanoic acid were also synthesized. The prepared ligand and organometallic complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C) spectral data. Spectral data showed that the ligand coordination through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated hydroxyl group. Monodentate, tetrahedral geometry were proposed for the complexes.

 

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME METAL ORE SURFACES USING SODIUM-PALMITATE AND SODIUM-LAURATE AS ADSORBATES

                    

*M. U. Ibezim-Ezeani and A. C.

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract

The characterization of some metal ores surfaces obtained from Nigeria (galena, hematite and cassiterite) using sodium-palmitate and sodium-laurate as adsorbates in aqueous phase has been investigated. The specific surface area of the adsorbents are 128.7 m2/g for galena, 118.5 m2/g for hematite and 88.1 m2/g for cassiterite. The zero-point of charge of the adsorbents were 7.25 for galena, 7.30 for hematite and 7.49 for cassiterite. Maximum adsorption capacities occurred in the region of zero-point of charge of each adsorbent at 29oC. In all cases, the adsorption capacity is in the order: galena > hematite > cassiterite and correlates with the observed order in their specific surface area suggesting the importance of the specific surface area in the adsorption processes. The sodium-laurate adsorption capacities were higher than those of sodium-palmitate in all cases.

 

CONCENTRATIONS OF SOME METALS IN SOME NIGERIAN COALS

1C.O.B. Okoye and 2*K.E. Ugwu

1Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

2National Center for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Abstract

The concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in coal samples from three mines: Ogwashi-uku, Okaba and Onyeama were determined in order to assess their possible environmental impact when burnt and released into the environment.  The samples were prepared by dry ashing, using HNO3 acid as ashing aid to minimize losses by metal volatalization. Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer; titrimetry was in determining Ca and Mg while flame photometry was used for K and Na.  The metals concentrations in ppm were found as follows: K (5.33-5.78); Na (22.21); Ca (97-240) ;  Mg (9-14 ); Cd (3.67-5.22);    Cr (1.89-2.44 ); Cu (1.33-4.99); Fe (63.20-85.83);  Mn (1.44-2.56); Pb (2.22-4.44 ); Ni (0.44-0.67 ); and Zn (40.55-50.18).  Metal levels were considered to be low and not likely to cause air pollution when put into use.

 

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF MINED PONDS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF JOS, NIGERIA PERMANENT SITE

1J.N. Jabbo, 1*N.S. Gin, 2A.E. Ogezi and 1P.M. Dass

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology,School of School Science and Technology

Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi,  Nigeria.P.M.B 0094, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Department of Geology and Mining,University of Jos, Nigeria.

Abstract

The chemical quality of ground water of the mined ponds of the permanent site University of Jos, has been studied in March 2000 at the dry season in order to demonstrate that the potable ground water is without any deterioration by pollution. The area of study is widely underlained by rocks of the Basement Complex where the ground water occurs into two main aquifer types: the fractured crystalline rock and the soft over burden aquifer. The study revealed the mean values of the following parameters: pH,7.0, electrical conductivity, 700.0000 µmhos/cm, Total dissolved solids, 94.5500 mg/L, Total hardness, 72.010mg/L, sodium adsorption ratio, 0.3088, carbonate content, 30.500 mg/L, chloride content, 4.960mg/L, sulphate content, 25.000mg/L, nitrate content, 3.680mg/L, phosphate content 15.170 mg/L, iron content, 0.002mg/L, manganese content, 0.016 mg/L, zinc content 0.074 mg/L, cadmium and lead were not detected. Based on the suggested limits for irrigation water, the water falls within the class 2 indicating good water. The values are within permissible limits and the water is therefore  recommended to be use for irrigation.

 

MODIFIED PLASTIC CLAY - A PROPERTY MODIFIER IN NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDING.

  1. K. Akinlabi*, O. K. Oderinde and A. A. Bamgbola

Chemistry Department, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Abstract

The use of oleic acid-modified plastic clay in natural rubber (NR) compounds was studied. The silicate before modification was analysed by XRD and XRF, while the modified silicate was analysed by FT-IR. Moreover, both modified and unmodified silicates were studied in distilled water to determine their water retention capacity and also in (some selected organic solvents) to determine their swelling index. Various ratios of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and silicates (40:0, 35:5, 30:10, 25:15, 20:20) were mixed and labeled as mixes  A, A35, A30, A25, and A20 respectively. The physicomechanical and rheological characterization of the vulcanizates were determined vis-à-vis abrasion resistance, tensile strength, elongation at break, e.tc. From the results, modified clay- rubber composite sample gave better results in all properties determined, even as the ratio of modified silicate-carbonate increases. Above all, the properties obtained from the modified clay-rubber composites are within the accepted level for natural rubber mix, showing that such modified clay will find uses in NR compounding.

 

SELENIUM CONTENTS OF SOME COMMONLY CONSUMED NIGERIAN VEGETABLES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

1F.I.  Obahiagbon, 2H. Oboh, *1G. E. Uwumarongie-Ilori and 1I. Agho

1Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, P.M.B 1030, Benin City. Edo State. Nigeria

2University of Benin, Benin City

Abstract

For the present work, ten (10) commonly consumed Nigerian vegetables were purchased from the open market in Benin City. The vegetables include; waterleaf, ewedu leaf, bitter leaf, cassava leaf, pumpkin leaf, taro cocoyam leaf, tannin cocoyam leaf, green pepper leaf. Okra leaf and tomato leaf and were analyzed for selenium. The Selenium levels of the various leaves were determined by fluorometric method. The results indicate that the Selenium concentrations of  each of the vegetable leaves were within the permissible level for human nutrition, Additionally, significant differences were observed between the concentration levels of the selenium present in the leaves (p<0.05). The health implications of selenium in humans are discussed.

 

CADMIUM AND LEAD IN TISSUES OF TWO FISH (DRIED) SPECIES SOLD IN BAUCHI, NIGERIA

*1U. F. Hassan, 2B. Haruna, 1H.U. Gende and 1A. A. Adamu

.1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

 2Chemistry Department, College of Education, Minna

Abstract

The levels of cadmium and lead in the tissues of dried Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus fish sold in Bauchi were investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. The study revealed mean Cd levels of 0.0015, 0.0015 and 0.0024 µgg-1 for bones, gills and flesh respectively with a grand mean level of 0.0018 µgg-1 in dried  Clarias gariepinus. The average Pb concentrations of  0.0384, 0.0752 and 0.0299 µgg-1 for the bones, gills and flesh respectively of the same dried Clarias garieipinus were also obtained with a grand mean level of  0.0478 µgg-1. This study further revealed mean Cd concentration of the tissues of dried Oreochromis niloticus fish as 0.0016, 0.0014 and 0.0012 µgg-1 for bones, gills and flesh respectively with a grand mean concentration of 0.0014 µgg-1. The mean Pb concentration for the tissues of the same Oreochronus niloticus were found to be 0.0451, 0.0575 and 0.0313 µgg-1 for the bones, gills and flesh respectively with a grand mean concentration of 0.0446 µgg-1. Bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the tissues of the two fish species studied followed the sequence :Pb>Cd. Only the difference in the levels of Pb determined in the tissues of dried Clarias gariepinus were significantly different (P<0.05) using one way analysis of variance. The least significant difference (LSD)0.05) further indicated that only 33.33% of the Pb concentrations are significantly different in the tissue samples of the dried Clarias gariepinus.

 

NANO SIZED STARCH PARTICLES FROM MODIFIED CASSAVA AND POTATO TUBERS.

1A. K. Akinlabi, 2O. M.Oyenekan, 3A.O.Shobo, 2A.S.Arowolo  and 3O.K.Koleoso

1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic ,Abeokuta.

Abstract

Starch was extracted from two sources; cassava and potato using water as the solvent.  The starch sample was hydrolysed with four different acids; hydrochloric acid (as monobasic), sulphuric acid (as dibasic) phosphoric acid (as tribasic) and acetic acid (as organic) for a period of 20 days.  The following analysis; particle size, loss on ignition, moisture, ash, volatile matter, amylose, amylopectin and iodine tests were carried out on the starch before and after hydrolysis. Starch samples were analysed at intervals of two days starting from day four of the hydrolysis up to day eighteen. The sizes of the starch granules obtained at different days were determined using X-ray Diffractometer and it was observed that the size reduction of the starch granules by acid was in the following order: H3PO4 > H2SO4 > HCl > CH3COOH. Also, after 14 days of hydrolysis, there was no further reduction in particle sizes of the starch by all the acids. The acids were however able to reduce the starch samples to nano sizes. The upmost aim of the investigation is to find uses for the nano particle starch as additives in biodegradable polymers.

 

EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND POTENTIALS OF THE PULP OF RAFFIA PALM FRUIT (RAFFIA HOOKERI) AND THE CEREAL GRAINS– (UN-MALTED BARLEY, WHEAT, SORGHUM, MAIZE) AS BREWING ADJUNCTS.

*M.N.  Ogbuagu and G.C. Nwawuihe

Department Of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture,

Umudike. P.M.B. 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The proximate, mineral, vitamin and glucose compositions of the pulp of Raffia hookeri and the most common cereal grains (Un-malted barley, Wheat, Sorghum and Maize) used as brewing adjuncts have been determined. The pulp of Raffia hookeri has higher crude fibre (6.85± 0.03%) and ash (6.13±0.01%) contents than the considered cereal grains. The protein content of the pulp of Raffia hookeri (13.53±0.1%) falls within the value of 8.20±0.20% for un-malted barley and 15.17±0.01% for sorghum. The fat content of the pulp of Raffia hookeri (3.18±0.3%) is comparable to that of sorghum with a value of 3.18±0.1%. The pulp of Raffia hookeri has comparatively, very high content of calcium (50.77±2.31mg/100g), phosphorus (464.68±0.03mg/100g) and potassium (560±1.0mg/100g). The sodium to potassium ratio of the pulp of Raffia hookeri (14.1±0.02:560±1.0 is highly reasonable and better than the values for un-malted barley, wheat, sorghum and maize. The pulp of Raffia hookeri has higher values of Thiamin (0.7±0.007mg/kg), riboflavin (2.52±0.007mg/kg} and vitamin C (83.6±19.03mg/kg) than the cereal grains. The pulp of Raffia hookeri and the cereal grains have comparable values of starch and glucose. The study has revealed that any brewing process that employs un-malted barley, wheat, sorghum and maize as brewing adjuncts can equally employ the pulp of Raffia hookeri.

 

PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE WITH CLAY IN EMULSION PAINT PRODUCTION

*B. A. Ali, M. I Akumefula, C. Ahanaotu., C. C. Unegbu,  and N. I Uzomba.

Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri.

Abstract

Six samples of emulsion paint were produced with 100% CaCO3 and 100%  clay, while others were produced with partly replaced calcium carbonate with a clay in the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 20:80 respectively.  The samples were analyzed of specific gravity, pH, solid content, drying time and corrosion inhibition.  The results showed that specific gravity (0.64 – 1.22) pH (7.8 – 6.55), solid contents (44.36 – 54.62), the drying time of 45 – 33 minutes.  The paint showed potential of corrosion inhibition  and there was no weight loss on the coated nails after 15 days.  Of all, the partly replaced paints produced have positive effect on the properties of the emulsion paint produced.

 

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SYNTHETIC HEMATITE

F.A Adekola, N. Abdus-Salam and L.B. Abdulrauf

Chemistry Department, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Abstract

An hematite was synthesized and subjected to batch equilibration of arsenic and its desorption processes that control the mobility, toxicity and availability of arsenic in the water environment. The pHpzc of the synthesized hematite as determined by mass and potentiometric titration techniques are 9.18 and 9.20 respectively. The effect of background electrolyte concentration affected the pHpzc values obtained from Potentiometric titration method. Adsorption of As(III) was influenced by ionic strength and pH of the adsorbate medium. Maximum adsorption was obtained at pH 7.8. The adsorption data fit fairly well into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with correlation coefficient, r2 values of 0.96, 0.94, and 0.92 respectively. The n < 1 value obtained from Freundlich plot was an indication of favourable adsorption of As(III) over the entire range of concentrations studied. From the kinetic studies, a significant amount of As(III) was sorbed within 240 min. About 53% and 81% of the amount at 100% coverage were sorbed at 120 and 240 min respectively. Desorption of As(III) is pH dependent with 86% maximum desorption at pH 1 and 7% at pH 6.

 

FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION AND SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA GROWN CANANGA ODORATA FLOWER.

G.U. Obuzor and H.C. Nweke

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt,

Port Harcourt. Nigeria

Abstract

Fatty acid composition of Cananga odorata flower extract was analyzed and sixteen acids were identified with six fatty acids found in trace amounts while ten were in various appreciable amounts.  Two polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, linolenic acid (C18: 3, omega-3) at 0.01% and linoleic (C18:2, “omega-6”) with a concentration of 35.33% and two monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1, “omega-9”) at a concentration of 49.39% and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) at 0.28% were identified.  Six saturated fatty acids butyric acid (C5:0) (0.001%), caprylic acid (C8:0) (0.001%), caproic acid (C6:0) (0.002%), arachidic acid (C20: 0) (0.025%), stearic acid (C18: 0) (2.67%) and palmitic acid (C16: 0) (12.30%) were also obtained.  Some chemical analysis of the yellow oil of Cananga odorata flower gave the free fatty acid (oleic) 8.92%, acid value as 0.96mg KOH/g of oil, iodine value 81.45 (g of 1/100g of oil), peroxide value 16.22meq of active oxygen/Kg oil and saponification value of 188.73mg KOH/g of oil.  Micronutrients concentration of five minerals calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and copper were found to be 1.57, 0.61, 2.47, 0.066, 0.003mg/l respectively.

 

THE RHEOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER-POLYSTYRENE BLEND FILLED WITH RED EARTH

  1. Osabohien

Department of Chemistry,Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

Abstract

An investigation into the use of red earth as filler in formulations for blends of natural rubber (NR) with polystyrene (PS) in ratio of 90:10 was carried out. The cure characteristics (scorch time, cure time and maximum torque) and the physicomechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus (M300), elongation at break, hardness, specific gravity and rebound resilience were measured as a function of filler loading. The results of the red earth filled polymer blends were compared with standard carbon black (N330) filled types. The scorch time and cure time increased for CB(N330) and red earth filled vulcanizates with increasing filler loading. The maximum torque generally increased with increasing filler content. It was found that vulcanizates at 30 phr filler content gave optimum tensile strength and modulus (M300). Hardness and specific gravity generally increased while elongation at break and rebound resilience decreased with increasing filler content: the NR/PS blend of ration 90:10 filled with carbon black (N330) showed higher reinforcement potentials compared to the one filled with red earth. However, read earth is reinforcing as it enhanced the tensile strength and modulus of the vulcanizates.

 

SORPTION MODELS OF CADMIUM (11) ION ONTO AGRICULTURAL TUBER WASTES

I.A. Okoro

Department of Chemistry, Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,

PMB 7267, Abia State. Nigeria

Abstract

Sorption models and sorption capacities of tuber wastes for cadmium (11) ion were investigated. The results showed that more than ninety–five percent of initial concentration of cadmium (11) ion in the aqueous solution was sorbed by each of these tuber wastes. The results obtained from the modelling of the results of sorption studies using Langmuir and Dubinin –Radushkevich models showed that the maximum sorption capacity (Qmax) obtained is thus yam peels> sweet potato peels > cassava peels .The calculated porosity values (Qd) l/g showed yam peels > sweet potato peels > cassava peels. The calculated sorption energy E, showed the trend thus sweet potato peels > cassava peels > yam peels. The Langmuir constant obtained showed closely related values for the three tuber wastes studied.

 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIED AND PACKAGED DATE FRUITS

1I. L.Gold, 1B. E. Imoisi, 1E. E. Odigie, 1S. R. Ogblechi, and *2J. E.Gold

1Technology and Product Development Department,

Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, Edo State.

*2College of Agriculture, Iguoriakhi, Edo State,

Abstract

In this study, the drying behaviour and shelf-life stability of tamar date fruits with an initial moisture content of 35% [dry basis] was studied. Fruits were washed and dried at 40, 50, 60 and 70oC at  fixed air velocity of 18.7m/s.  The experimental results show that the drying temperature had a significant effect on moisture removal from date fruits. Constant drying rate was observed between 40 and 70oC while the falling rate was observed from 80oC. Date fruits were packed in flexible low density polypropylene-lined aluminum pouches. Storage studies showed that there was no significant moisture gain during a 14weeks period. Microbial population was also not significant. In conclusion, date fruits can be dried at 70oC and packed in polyethylene terephtalate-lined flexible aluminium pouches.

 

MEASUREMENTS OF SOME AMBIENT PRIMARY POLLUTANTS IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

K.E. Ugwu and A.C. Ofomatah

National Centre for Energy Research and Development

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Abstract

Air pollutants generated from anthropogenic and natural sources are causing serious environmental concern. The ambient levels of carbon [11] oxide (CO), methane (CH4) and hydrogen disulphide (H2S) in Nsukka were measured between April and June, 2011, at four locations with different characteristics in order to assess the level of pollution by the gases. While the levels of methane and hydrogen disulphide were below the detection limit of the Multi-gas monitor used, the highest level of 31 ppm was recorded for the day time concentration of Carbon [11] oxide in Nsukka town. This value suggested that the level of C0, an asphyxiant, in Nsukka was above the World Health Organization guideline for 8-hour averaging time. The study was needed to obtain the baseline data of the level of pollution of the gases in the area and compare it with appropriate standards as part of the air pollution studies of the environment.

 

DERIVATION OF A SIMPLIFIED RADIOACTIVE DECAY EQUATION

*C.E. Duru and A.A. Ayuk

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

A simplified radioactive decay equation has been obtained by combining the principles of sequences and series with the radioactive decay equation. This equation given by, Nt = No (1/2) t/t½, was derived by combining the radioactive decay equation: Nt = No e –λt ,  and the equation for the nth term of a geometric progression given by, Tn = ar n-1 . The new equation serves as an easy tool for the calculation of the initial amount of a radioactive nuclide, the amount left after a given time (t), and the half-life t½ of the nuclide without these values being whole numbers.

 

 

A TRITERPENOID FROM STEM BARK OF Sterculia Setigera Del

                                                          *T. A. Tor-anyiin and M. U. Akpuaka

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry,

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract

Sterculia setigera Del is a plant used in ethnomedicine.  Petroleum ether (40-600C) extract of its stem bark was obtained via maceration at room temperature. On recrystallization from methanol-dichloromethane (MeOH-DCM), it gave a colourless solid, 0.5% yield, mp 209-2110C. Phytochemical screening together with tlc indicated presence of triterpenoids. Spectroscopic analysis shows IR: 3328, 1640 cm-1; 13C-NMR: 151.05 (C20), 109.44 (C19);1H-NMR:  4.67(s), 4.55(s), 1.67(s), 0.81-1.37(s), 3.19(d), and 2.38(m), and MS:[M+ M/Z=426.4]. These analyses together with literature reports led to the identification of a triterpenoid lupeol, [3-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene] (C30H50O).

 

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME FRESHWATER FISHES OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

  1. O. Jacob*, M. M. Ndamitso, A. I. Ajai and A. S. Fayomi

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria

Abstract

Concentrations of the heavy metals Lead, Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Nickel were determined in the flesh, intestine and gills of nine most common freshwater fishes found in Niger State of Nigeria. Samples of fishes were collected from Minna central fish market over a period of five days. Generally fish species accumulate metals in the order Zinc>Copper>Lead>Nickel>Cadmium, except in Clarotes laticapae and Tilapia niloticus where the order is Copper>Zinc>Lead>Nickel>Cadmium. Metal accumulation in fish samples was greater in the internal organs than in the flesh, except for Copper. For Lead and Cadmium the order was gills>intestine>flesh. For Zinc and Nickel the order was intestine>gills>flesh while for Copper the order was intestine>flesh>gills. Levels of the metals in fish samples were generally below the WHO and FAO maximum permissive limits (µg/g) of Lead (1.5), Copper (120), Zinc (150), Cadmium (0.5) and Nickel (0.4) and hence pose no consumption risk.

 

DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOME SUB-BITUMINOUS COALS FROM NIGERIA

*C. N. Ibeto, C. N. Anyanwu, C. G. Okpara, I. S. Eze and G.O. Unachukwu

National Centre for Energy Research and Development

University of Nigeria Nsukka, 410001 Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract

The coal industry in Nigeria, which contributed  substantially to the country’s basic primary energy supply in the past, has been relegated to near obscurity since the discovery of oil in 1958. Nigeria has reserves of about 2.7 billion metric tonnes of mainly sub-bituminous and lignitic coals, which can supply appreciable amount of her energy needs but reintroducing coal into Nigeria’s energy mix not only faces problems of appropriate technology but also new environmental regulations. The present article reports the results of the analyses of sub-bituminous coal samples obtained from eight mine sites in three states (Benue, Enugu and Kogi) located in the south-eastern and north-central zones of Nigeria. The concentrations of five heavy metals, namely cadmium, chromium, manganese, lead and nickel were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy following digestion of the samples according to standard procedure. Results indicate that the concentration of these metals, Ni: 0.13 – 0.37 ppm; Mn: 1.20 – 157.22 ppm; Ni: 0.32 – 12.83; Pb: 3.95 – 35.73 and Cr: 2.44 – 13.0 ppm, varied widely. Although they were in agreement with results obtained by other authors, the concentration of most of the metals were above the limits stipulated by the Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency for surface water, indicating that serious measures should be considered for pretreatment and disposal of coal ash emanating from processing activities involving their combustion.

 

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON (TPH) IN LOCAL AND NIGERIAN STORED PRODUCTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NSPRI) KILN SMOKED FISH

S.A.  Atanda*1, P.O. Pessu1, S. Agoda1, I.U. Isong1, T.J. Borisade1, T.R. Adeniran1, O.E. Usanga1, I.G. Olatunde1, O.R. Abiose1 and  K.A.  Kemabonta2

1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute 32/34 Barikisu Iyede Street, Abule Oja Yaba P.M.B.12543 Lagos

2Department of Storage Entomology University of Lagos Akoka Yaba Lagos.

Abstract

This study evaluate the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) as a precursor for the presence of carcinogenic poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in fish smoked locally in selected markets in Lagos and fish smoked using  fabricated smoking kiln developed by the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI)  using different types wood and other combustible materials. The fish from the local markets were obtained from three (3) different sellers in each location to have a representative sample and the ones smoked by NSPRI were smoked using the method of hot wet smoking .The levels of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were determined using n-hexane extractable material (HEM) method by Extraction and Gravimetry as described by US EPA (EPA 1996a) and the moisture content were determined the hot air oven method as described by the AOAC. The results obtained showed that the level of TPH for the locally smoked fish were found out to be 0.0005mg/kg, 0.0026mg/kg,0.0003mg/kg, 0.0007mg/kg in Bariga, Egbeda, Makoko and  Mushin  respectively while that of Agege and NSPRI were not detected at a level of 0.0001mg/kg. Also the average moisture content was found out to be 45.74± 1.36%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that there was no significant difference between the levels of TPH in fish smoked locally and the safe limit.

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND POTENTIAL OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA) FRUIT FOR SYRUP AND JAM MAKING

1D.Yusuf and 2P.I. Akubor

Departments of 1Science Laboratory Technology 2Food Science and Technology,

Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1037, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Syrup and jam were prepared from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit and evaluated for their physicochemical and sensory properties. The results showed that the pH of the date palm fruit pulp, syrup and jam were 3.1, 4.8 and 4.8, respectively. The soluble solids increased from 130Brix in the pulp to 77 and 820Brix in the syrup and jam, respectively. The date palm pulp and its products contained low levels of protein (1.0-2.0%), fat (0.4-0.5%), ash (1.7-2.0%) and crude fiber (1.2-2.5%). The date palm pulp had higher amount of carbohydrate (83%) than the syrup (48.1%) and jam (56.1%). Similarly, the caloric value of the syrup (200 kcal/100g) and jam (232.8 kcal/100g) were lower than that of the pulp (344.5 kcal/100g). However, the total sugar contents of the pup and its products were high (70-73%). The ascorbic acid contents decreased from 2% in the pulp to 0.5% in the syrup and 0.8% in the jam. The sensory evaluation results showed that the date palm jam was not significantly different (p>0.05) in colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability from black currant (a commercial) jam. Indeed, the date palm jam was preferred to the commercial jam in spreadability. Similarly, the sensory scores for colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability of the syrup did not differ significantly from those of honey. The date palm syrup and jam were generally accepted by the panelists.

 

DISPERSION PATTERN OF TRACE METALS IN SOILS SURROUNDING SOLID WASTE DUMPS IN NSUKKA

*1C.O.B Okoye and 2K.E Agbo

*1Department of Chemistry, 2National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.

Abstract

The dispersion pattern of trace metals in soils surrounding municipal solid waste dumps was studied using three major dumps within Nsukka urban. Soil samples were collected at three positions (At dump, 5m and 10m from the dumpsites), and two depths (0-7cm and 15-20cm), in dry season (January), and wet seasons (August) respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method was employed in the determination of the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples. All Sampling and determinations were done in duplicates. Levels of heavy metals were higher at the dumps than at distances away .While the concentrations of Cd, Fe and Zn were lower in the subsoil, Cu and Pb were found to be more concentrated at 15-20cm depth because of low mobility. Difference in the mean concentration of metals between the positions irrespective of the dumpsite were significant (p>0.05). The concentration gradient decreased steadily with distance from the dumpsites. Dispersion was more in wet seasons than in dry seasons. In order to elucidate the impact of soil physicochemical characteristics on the pattern of trace metals dispersion, total dissolved solid TDS, Electrical conductivities EC, pH, SO42-, Cl, NO3, PO43-, clay content, silt, sand and organic matter, were determined by standard methods. Clay showed negative correlation with all the metals(r= -1.000for Cd & Pb respectively at 15-20cm depth), while organic matter and PO43- respectively have significant positive correlation with Cd(r=1.000), and Pb (r=1.000 & 0.999) in top soil.

 

REMEDIATION OF METAL POLLUTED SEDIMENTS USING A CHELATING AGENT: FRACTIONATION PATTERN OF METALS BEFORE AND AFTER REMEDIATION

1A.O Oyeyiola,1K.O Olayinka, 2C.M Davidson and 1B.I. Alo

1Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos Akoka- Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral street, Glasgow G1 1XL, UK

Abstract

Four sediment samples from rivers in Lagos state Nigeria were collected and pseudototal metal concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn as well as their fractionation pattern was determined, using the modified BCR method. Possible remediation of the sediment with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated using batch extraction and column leaching respectively. The removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, were 48-87%, 3-7%, 18-48%, 8-73% and 8-80% for the batch extraction, and 46-66%, 3-7%, 15-57%, 10-59%, and 9-47% for column leaching. EDTA effectively removed metals in the acid exchangeable and the reducible fractions, and also from the oxidisable fraction (in the case of Cu). The efficiency of batch extraction was found to be comparable to the column leaching. The quality of the data was checked with the certified reference materials BCR CRM 143, BCR 701 and good agreement (results within two standard deviations of target values) was obtained between the found and the certified/indicative values. The results proved that heap leaching is a promising approach in the remediation of metal polluted sediments after dredging and metals are removed mainly from the non-detrital fractions (acid exchangeable and reducible fractions)

 

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL MINERALS INGINGER, GARLIC, AND ONION.

*1 D.E.A Boryo, 2P.M Dass, 2N.S Gin and 1J.K Samuel

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi

Abstract

Comparative evaluation of essential mineral contents such as calcium, potassium, iron, iodine, phosphorus and sodium in ginger, garlic and onion was carried out using various standard analytical methods. The amount of calcium ranged from 3.6300mg/l in garlic 2.6900mg/l in onion to 0.2509mg/l in ginger; potassium 0.6750mg/l in ginger, 0.4250mg/l in garlic to 0.220mg/l in onion; phosphorus 24.800mg/l in garlic, 22.1500mg/l in onion  to 18.410mg/l in ginger; iron 1.560mg/l in garlic, 1.5420mg/l ginger to 0.0750mg/l in onion while iodine ranged from 2.332mg/l in garlic 1.7560 mg/l onion to 0.8039mg/l in ginger. Sodium concentration in garlic was 0.250mg/l and there was not available in ginger and onion. The result showed that all the samples contained appreciable concentrations of essential mineral with exception of sodium. Therefore, these samples, especially garlic and onion provides alternative source of minerals for human need.

 

ADSORPTION OF LEAD (II) ION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM COCONUT COIRPITH

  1. I Adegoke. and F. A.Adekola

Chemistry Department, University of Ilorin, P.M. B. 1515, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria.

Abstract

Activated carbons were prepared from coconut coirpith using 0.5M orthophosphoric acid, 0.5M sodium hydroxide and 0.5M trioxonitrate (v) acid as the chemical activating reagents. The prepared activated carbons were initially characterized and later applied for the adsorption of Pb (II) ion ranging from 100-500mg/l aqueous solution. The results obtained indicated that sodium hydroxide treated -activated carbon performed best when compared to others prepared from orthophosphoric acid and trioxonitrate (V) acid. The adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity calculated for the various chemically-activated charcoals from the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were in the range18.05 – 37.31mg/g and 23.25-36.56 mg/g at 28 ±2oC respectively.

 

EFFECT OF ASH ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM BLENDS OF BAGASSE AND COW DUNG.

1A.C Ofomatah, 2C.O.B Okoye and 1G.O Unachukwu,

1 National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

2 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Abstract

Blends of ash- treated and untreated bagasse with cow dung were investigated for biogas production.  Two sets of five biodigesters each of 50kg capacity were used. Blends of untreated and treated bagasse and cow dung were prepared in the biodigesters labeled A to E as follows: A, bagasse alone. B, 70% bagasse/ 30% cow dung. C, 50% bagasse/ 50% cow dung. D, 30% bagasse/ 70% cow dung, and E, cow dung alone. They were respectively charged into 50kg metal prototype biodigesters in the ratio of 3:1(water: waste). Proximate analyses as well as total solids, volatile solids, carbon content and calorific value were conducted on the waste while microbial level, PH and temperature were determined on the slurry. The wastes were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 35 days at mesophilic temperature range of 29 to 31oC. Relative humidity and volume of gas were monitored and recorded on daily basis throughout the digestion period. Cumulative biogas yields of all the treated bagasse blends were higher than those of the untreated. Blending of bagasse with cow dung improved the biogas yield of bagasse. Onset of gas flammability was observed on the 4TH day for bagasse and its blends while for cow dung alone, it was observed on the 5TH day.

 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TOPICAL OINTMENT PROPERTIES OF BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII AND AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA SEEDS EXTRACT WITH COMMERCIAL OINTMENTS .

C.E Ogukwe, E.E. Oguzie, J.I. Alinnor and  R.N. OZE

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology P.M.B. 1526, Owerri.

Abstract

Two Nigerian plants- Butyrospermum parkii seed oil and essential oils from Aframomum melegueta seeds were studied for the presence of phytochemical compounds which exhibit pain relieving properties when applied topically. Various samples of 75/25% w/v , 50/50% w/v and 50/50% w/w formulations of this two natural products were prepared and studied using AOAC and ASTM methods of analysis. The formulated ointments were compared to those of commercially existing ones. The results showed that the B. parkii and A. melegueta exhibited topical ointment properties as a synergic function of the fatty acids (emollients), terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols (rubefacients). The 50/50% w/v formulation had properties that complied perfectly with the Institute of Public Analysts of Nigeria [IPAN’s] descriptions of  topical ointment.

 

QUALITY EVALUATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitelleria paradosum).

1A.S. Abitogun, 1A.O Jide, 1G.Aladekoyi, 2F.BBorokini.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019,Owo, OndoState, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry,Federal University of Technology,Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The Shea nut used for this study was obtained in a farm land near Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria. They were processed by the traditional technique practiced in the area. The sequence includes Nut boiling, drying, cracking, sorting and winnowing, crushing, skimming and decanting among others. The residual oil obtained was assessed for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition. The antimicrobial activities were carried out using five species of bacteria. The results of the assessment show that: moisture content (1.2%), specific gravity (0.87), refractive index (1.52), fire point (243oC), flash point (221oC), smoke point (180oC) and pH (4.5). Others were free fatty acid (1.55%oleic acid), acid value (3.10 %oleic acid), saponification value (182.52mgKOH/g oil), peroxide value (19.6mEq peroxide/Kg), iodine value (58.30) and the yield (49.85%). The yield indicates that Shea butter is a good source of oil. Also, the assessment contains essential fatty acid needed in the body. Finally, the oil possesses some inhibitory characteristic.

 

 

BASELINE DATA STUDY, REAERATION RATE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ONUINYI RIVER IN OBOWO, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

1C. E.  Ogukwe*, 1E.E.Oguzie, 1J. I. Alinnor  and  2G. O. Oze

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Federal University of Technology P. M.B.1526, Owerri

2Department of Biochemistry, Imo State University, P.M.B. 1021 Owerri.

Abstract

Physic-chemical characteristics of water samples from eight sampling points along Onuinyi river course were assessed using standard methods. The result showed that the river was slightly acidic with a mean pH value of 6.43 compared with WHO range of 6.50 to 8.50. An observed mean BOD value of 13.5mg/l was recorded. Eleven   (11)   out   of the fifteen studied parameters were within the WHO standards for potable water. The river has a flow rate of 0.52m/s with a calculated reaeration rate of 0.37 day-1 and should therefore not serve as a receiving water body for   industrial effluent. The meets U.S. Public Health Service drinking water standards and should be considered safe and satisfactory for drinking water purposes if subjected to approved   treatment to reduce naturally present impurities by standardizing the pH and BOD level of the water.  Onuinyi   river is   therefore   classified   as a ‘CLASS   A’ river with respect to American Standard for streams   and   river   classification.

 

SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF PYROLYZED RICE HUSK PARTICLES

*1 C.D Igwebike-Ossi and 2J.A Ibemesi

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

clemdossi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Milled rice husks were incinerated in a muffle furnace under controlled temperatures and time in the range 400 – 10000C and 1-6hrs, respectively, to obtain rice husk ash (RHA) samples. The morphological changes, which occurred on the surface of rice husks during thermal degradation were observed with the aid of a palaeontology microscope and a digital camera, with which snapshots of magnified pyrolyzed particles were obtained at hourly intervals. The photographs revealed the presence of a large number of round button-like protuberances or bumps interspaced with small craters (pores) on the surfaces of the magnified RHA particles obtained at all the combustion temperatures, which made them resemble the surface of a corncob unlike those of the virgin rice husks, which had a dense and flat surface morphology. All the RHA particles showed a curved shrinkage in size along the horizontal (transverse) axes at all the combustion temperatures and time. There was no noticeable difference in the shape and surface morphology of the RHA particles obtained at lower combustion temperatures (400 to 6000C). The RHA surface morphology also appeared unaffected by combustion time at the said temperatures. However, at high temperatures (700-9000C), some of the particles became sickle-shaped, particularly at high heating rates. Previous workers had postulated that the pores are the points at which the volatile lignocellulosic materials escaped from the RHA particles while the bumps are as a result of obstruction of silica fibres to devolatilisation.

 

CHARACTERIZATION OF COLA STARCH CITRATE – A POTENTIAL PHARMACEUTICAL / INDUSTRIAL STARCH

1*M.O. Omojola, 2M.O. Afolayan, 2A.B.Adebiyi, 2J.O.Orijajogun and 1A. P Onwualu

1*Raw Materials Research  and Development  Council, PMB 232 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria

2Sheda Science and Technology Complex, PMB 186 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Starch extracted from the nuts of cola nitida rubra was modified chemically to produce the citrate derivative. The cola starch citrate which was prepared by reacting starch previously extracted from kolanuts with citric acid at elevated temperatures was found to be slightly off – white`in colour, crystalline and a non – hygroscopic powder which gave a percentage yield of 78.2 % from the starting material. The starch citrate prepared was insoluble in water and had a swelling capacity of 14.32 at 80 OC in water. It did not gelatinize when heated at 100 OC in water for 30 min. It has a browning temperature of 227.3 – 233.8 OC, charring temperature of 252.7 – 261.8 OC, water absorption capacity of 88.7 %, pH of 4.88, foam and emulsion capacities of 4.5 % and 7.52 % respectively. Proximate analysis (in %) was found to be: fat – 2.0, ash – 1.0, protein – 0.021, moisture – 10.83, crude fibre – 0.67 and carbohydrates – 85.479. The photomicrograph shows that the starch citrate granule has an oval shape, generally small to medium sized (sizes ranging from 5 – 20 µm) with occasional large ones. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of the native cola starch with the citrate derivative indicates that it might be a better disintegrant than native cola starch in tablet formulations and also suitable for use in other industries.

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