JCSN, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2014

SUITABILITY OF SANDBOX (Hura crepitans Linn) SEED OIL ALKYD FOR PAINT FORMULATION

*C. O. Eromosele, A. A. Lasisi  and  A. Awosanya

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: eromoselecatherine@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Seed oil and alkyd resin obtained from Hura crepitans were investigated to establish their utility as materials for oil paint. The results of second-order reaction indicated rate constants (k) of 5.67×10-4, 5.38×10-4 and 4.67×10-4 g(mg KOH)-1min-1 at 40%, 50% and 60% oil lengths respectively. Marginal differences were observed in iodine, acid and saponification values in the three sets of alkyd resins prepared. Iodine values of 69.80 ± 0.04 g/100g Iodine, 77.41 ± 0.03 g/100g Iodine and 95.18 ± 0.03 g/100g Iodine were obtained for 40%, 50% and 60% oil lengths respectively and as well, saponification values of 385.30 ± 0.85 mgKOH/g, 402.72 ± 0.88 mg KOH/g and 362.59 ± 0.80 mgKOH/g. The results of the chemical resistance of the three alkyd resins indicated that the alkyds were fairly resistant to water, brine and acid but poorly resistant to alkali. Characterization and drying time of the three samples of paint produced from 40%, 50% and 60% oil length alkyd resins suggest that the paint were affected by alkaline solution, but have same resistance to adhesion and kerosene. The time required for three paint samples to dry to a hard film decreased with increase in oil length.  H. crepitans seed oils have potentials for paint formulation properties.

 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY OF HAND-DUG WELLS IN BERA/NWE-OL COMMUNITY, OGONI KINGDOM, NIGERIA.

*C. C Obunwo, and J. B. Bodo

Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt.

*Corresponding author: ccobunwo@yahoo.com

Abstract

Evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristics of the water quality of hand dug wells in a rural community in Ogoni Kingdom, Bera-Nwe-ol, was carried out with the intent of establishing likely sources of some health challenges in the community. The community was divided into the low- and high- land areas. Water samples were collected from 10 hand dug wells from each of the areas. The physico-chemical characteristics, which include temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), acidity, as well as chloride, nitrate and hardness concentrations, were analysed using standard methods. Water samples collected from wells in the low land areas recorded higher values in TDS (293.00 ±217.87 mg/l), EC (420.00±311.70µS/cm), Acidity (38.01±27.09mg/l), and Hardness (133.30±76.88mg/l) than in the high land areas TDS (97.00± 47.62mg/l), EC (140.00±60.00µS/cm), Acidity (3.93±1.49mg/l), and Hardness (80.98±41.51mg/l). These variations may be as a result of surface water intrusion into the wells in the low land areas. The pH values (3.20 – 6.08) indicated high acidic content, possibly responsible for the explicable health challenges in the community.

 

USE OF TOC, SOM AND PORPHYRIN AS INDICES FOR RECONSTRUCTING SEDIMENTATION PATTERN AS EXEMPLIFIED BY CAMPANO- MAASTRICHTIAN SHALES OF NKPORO FORMATION, CALABAR FLANK, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA.

1*K. A. Ibe and 2V.N. Osabor

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, P.M.B. 1221 Effurun.

2Department of Pure/ Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, P.M.B. 1515 Calabar

*Corresponding author: kibe1818@yahoo.com

Abstract

Thirty outcrop samples from Nkporo formation in Calabar Flank, Southeastern Nigeria were analysed for total organic carbon, soluble organic matter and porphyrins. The values of the total organic carbon (TOC) ranged from 1.78 to 4.3% while those of the soluble organic matter (SOM) ranged from 110.5 to 4550ppm. The ratio of nickel- summation of nickel & vanadium porphyrins ranged from 0.15 to 1.00. The pattern of variation of the TOC and SOM values (spasmodic drop in systematic variation) depicts a multi- cycle sedimentation pattern. And the reconstructed paleoenvironment using the porphyrinic ratios was predominantly oxidizing. However, the TOC values were mostly greater than 2.5%, suggesting that conditions that generate reducing environment existed.

 

EVALUATION OF SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS IMPACTED WITH PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENTS IN RUMUEKPE COMMUNITY, RIVERS STATE.

*C. C Obunwo and E. G.Francis

Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: ccobunwo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The evaluation of some physicochemical characteristics of soils impacted with palm oil mill effluents in Rumuekpe community was investigated. The study was intended to address the possible effects of the effluents on soil, since it was observed that at most dumpsites of the effluents, vegetation was sparse. A total of ten (10) soil samples were collected at 10m intervals and at two different depths of 0 -15cm and 15 – 30cm of the soil layer. This procedure was replicated after 100 days.  Physicochemical characteristics of the soil measured included: particle size and textural class, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity. From visual inspection, soil samples, 20m(or less) away from the dumpsite, were brown, damp, odorous, sand loamy and with little or no vegetation. Soil pH, % organic carbon and exchangeable cation concentrations decreased further away from the dumpsite. The results tend to indicate that the palm oil mill effluents (POME) may have impacted negatively on the soil at its dumpsite.

 

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF DEHYDRATED CASTOR OIL (DCO) BY INFRA RED SPECTROSCOPY AND TITRIMETRIC METHODS

1M. B. Dalen, 2A. Q. Ibrahim, 2H. M Adamu and 3A.I. Ikeuba

1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University Of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

2 Chemistry Programme, School of Science Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. Nigeria

3 Department Of Pure And Applied Chemistry, University Of Calabar  PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: scitechno2003@yahoo.com

Abstract

Mechanically extracted Castor Oil (CO) was characterized for its physicochemical properties using conventional methods. The results showed refractive index (1.415), relative viscosity (5.6), pH (6.5), specific gravity (0.962), acid value (3.83mgKOH/g), hydroxyl value (160.35mgKOH/g of oil) and iodine value (83.44g I2/100g of oil) which are within ASTM values. The IR spectral analysis of the oil showed characteristic absorption bands for hydrogen bonded   OH (V) at 3450 cm-1 with  sharp bands of CH (V) at 3010cm-1, C=O(V) for carboxylic acids at 1750 cm-1 and olefinic  C=C(V) at 1680 cm-1 antisymetric stretching vibration.  Acid catalysed dehydration of the oil was monitored by measurements of changes in hydroxyl values and IR spectral analysis with time. The results showed that hydroxyl value decreases from160.35mg KOH/g at 0 mins to 38.75mg KOH/g at 90 mins while spectral analysis showed a decrease in OH absorbance from 0.8686 to 0.2132 and an increase in double bond absorbance from 0.3233 to 0.5528. Furthermore, Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) was characterized titrimetrically and the following results were obtained; refractive index (1.465), relative viscosity (4.39), pH (2.0), specific gravity (0.952), acid value (8.23mg KOH/g of oil), hydroxyl value (36.17mg KOH/g of oil) and iodine value (130.92g I2/100g of oil). Similarly, IR spectral analysis lays claims to the formation of DCO. Therefore, monitoring and evaluation of dehydration parameters by titrimetric methods and infrared spectroscopy gave effective and complimentary results.

 

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HEXADEC-12-ENOIC ACID  FROM THE STEM OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES (LINN)

*1A.M. Lohdip, 2A.O. Oyewale  and 2J.O. Amupitan

1Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, P.M.B 2084, Jos Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: aminalohdip@yahoo.com

 Abstract

 The stem powder of Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linn) was hydrolysed with 1M HCl, the marc of this was dried and further extracted with petroleum ether (60o – 80o). The extract, labelled Sc, was subjected to thin layer chromatography on silica gel G using the lower layer of CH3(CH2)3OH – H2O (1:1). Having observed that the TLC gave only one spot, the extract was further partitioned in chloroform-water and the chloroform fraction spotted again. The solubility of the extract was also tested in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water. Its melting point was also determined. The TLC chromatogram of chloroform fraction still gave only one spot (with Rf  value of 0.87) and the M.P. was sharp, indicating that the extractive was pure. It was therefore, finally characterised by spectroscopic analyses: gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), infrared (IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR) and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (CNMR) spectra. It was soluble in acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether, but insoluble in methanol, ethanol and water. The melting point was found to be 65oC. The MS fragmentations agreed with the compound C15H29COOH. The IR spectrum of the extractive suggests the presence of a carboxylic group, -COOH with two characteristic bands at 1740 cm-3(C=O str) and 3400 cm-3(O-H str); the peak at about 1500 cm-1 may be due to C=C str mode. The PNMR showed  CH3 signal at 0.8 ppm, signals due to the CH2 appeared at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.4 ppm  as multiplets. The C-13 NMR  showed peaks at 14.38 ppm (- CH3); 122.33 and 130.15 ppm (two olefinic carbons); 179.39 (- COOH) and 20 – 25 ppm for the CH2 carbons. Comparison of Attached Proton Test (APT) of the CNMR with Chem Draw library showed that the extractive was hexadec-12-enoic acid (C15H29CO2H).  The IR, P-NMR and C-13 NMR (APT) spectra and the GC-MS fragmentation pattern agree with the fact that Sc, is hexadec-12-enioc acid.

 

IMPACT OF KEROSENE ON TYMPANOTONUS FUSCATUS TISSUES

*E. O. Simeon and E. O. Adaunwo

Department of Chemistry, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, PMB 5047 Rumuolumeni,

Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: onisogen.edori@yahoo.com

Abstract

One hundred and twenty Tympanotonus fuscatus were exposed to graded concentrations of kerosene (10.40, 15.60, 21.00 and 26.00ml/L) in aqueous medium and a control for six days. The Tympanotonus fuscatus were then examined to see the effect of the kerosene on the activities of  enzymes: aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of electrolytes:  sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl‑) ions. In the muscle, AST and ALP activities were increased above that of the control value in all the test concentrations. ALT activities were inhibited in all the test concentrations below the control value. Viscera AST were either higher or lower in the test concentrations than the control value. ALT was elicited in all the concentration exposure except at 15.60ml/L. ALP activity was also elicited in all the exposure concentrations except at 26.00ml/L. In the muscle, Na+ and K+ ion levels increased at the lower concentrations (10.40 and 15.60ml/L) and declined at 21.00 and 26.00ml/L. the Cl- ion increased only at 15.60ml/L and declined at the highest concentrations (21.00 and 26.00ml/L). In the viscera, all the ions followed different patterns. Na+ ion increased in levels above the control value only at 21.00ml/L and decreased in all the other exposure concentrations. K+ ion increased in levels in all the exposure concentrations except at 26.00ml/L. Cl- ion levels declined in  all the exposure concentrations with the most noticeable decrease observed at 21.00ml/L concentration. This study showed that kerosene affected the internal biochemistry of Tympanotonus fuscatus through changes in the activity of enzymes and levels of electrolytes.

 

EFFECT OF SUBSTITUENTS ON THE DYEING PERFORMANCE OF NOVEL DISPERSE DYES DERIVED FROM METHYL-2-AMINO-4-[(4-CHLOROPHENYL)CARBAMOYL]-5-METHYLTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE

1*O. R. A. Iyun, 2K.  A. Bello,   3O.  J.  Abayeh,   3A. Jauro and 4F. O. Shode

1*Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

3Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

4Department of Chemistry, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Corressponding author: mrsiyun@yahoo.com

Abstract

Eight novel variously substituted azo dyes derivatives of N-phenylmaleimides were prepared. The effects of the nature and orientation of the substituents on the color and dyeing properties of these dyes on nylon fibres were evaluated. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C-NMR and MS). The dyes were applied to nylon fabrics and showed good washing, sublimation, acid and alkali perspiration fastness. The remarkable degree of brightness after washings is indicative of good penetration and the excellent affinity of these dyes for the nylon. The results in general revealed the efficiency of the prepared compounds as new azo dyes.

 

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 4-[{BENZOYL-HYDRAZINYL} TRIFLUOROACETYL]-3-METHYL-1-PHENYLPYRAZOL-5-ONE

*1J. N. Asegbeloyin, 1E.C. Okafor  and  2I. Babahan

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry University of  Nigeria, Nsukka.

2Department of Chemistry,  Adnan Menderes University, 09010, Aydin, Turkey.

*Corresponding author: niyi.asegbeloyin@unn.edu.ng

Abstract        

A 4-halosubstitutedpyrazol-5-one Schiff base; 4-[{benzoyl-hydrazinyl}trifluoroacetyl]-3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-trifluoroacetyl-3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one and benzoylhydrazide. The study compound was characterized by elemental and spectral (FT–IR, Uv-Vis , 1H and 13C NMR) analyses. Spectral analysis showed that the study compound was isolated in the keto-amine form.

 

REMOVAL OF ZINC FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION USING COCONUT COIR DUST (RESIDUE AND EXTRACT)

*A. U. Israel and E. Inam

Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo

P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: umoudohaj04@yahoo.com

Abstract

The adsorption behaviour of Zn (II) ions onto unmodified coconut coir dust residue and extract (UCCR, UCCE) as well as   NaCl treated coconut coir dust residue and extract ( NaCCR and NaCCE) was investigated at different temperatures and pH 7.0. The trend in the percentage adsorption of the adsorbate on the adsorbents decreased in the following order UCCRNaCCE>NaCCR> UCCE. There is justification in modifying the coir dust extract since this enhanced its adsorptive capacity. The sorption data were subjected to Langmuir, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption data of Zn (II) ions on NaCl modified coconut coir dust extract (NaCCE) best fitted the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation value R2 > 0.90 at all temperatures. This indicated monolayer surface coverage of the Zn (II) ions on the adsorbent. The data for the adsorption on NaCl modified coir dust residue (NaCCR) and NaCl treated coir dust extract (NaCCE) at 50oC fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model implying a heterogeneous surface coverage of the adsorbents at that temperature. All the adsorption data of Zn (II) ions on these adsorbents did not fit the Flory-Huggins model. In general, the adsorption increased with temperature indicating an endothermic process. The negative value of DGo signified that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous process. The results indicate that coconut coir dust residue and  sodium chloride modified coconut coir dust extract could be employed as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Zn (II) ions from solution.

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF MELON SEED MILK AND CONCONUT MILK MIXTURES

P.I Akubor

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Corresponding author: akuborpeter@gmail.com

Abstract

Milk samples were extracted from melon (Colocynthis vulgaris) seeds and coconut (Cocos nucifera L) fruits.  Coconut milk (CNM) was mixed with melon seed milk (MSM) in the ratio of 08:92, 16:84 and 32:68(CNM: MSM).  The physicochemical and sensory properties of the milk mixtures were determined.  The protein, moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents decreased (P<0.05) while fat and crude fiber contents increased with increasing levels of CNM in the mixtures. The MSM/CNM mixtures contained high amounts of energy, values ranged from 89.2 to 177.8 kcal/100g. The energy values increased as the amount of CNM increased in the mixtures but the pH decreased with the level of the CNM. All the MSM samples containing CNM received higher sensory ratings than the 100% MSM (control).  The sensory ratings except that for taste increased up to 16% level of CNM addition and thereafter were reduced. Thus, the MSM containing 16% CNM was adjudged the most acceptable by the panelists.

 

POTENTIALS OF SOME BIOMASS FUEL BRIQUETTES

*D. R. Naron and M. P. L Kagoro

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: narondavid@yahoo.com

Abstract

In the search for suitable solid fuels to complement conventional fuels, used recharge cards, charcoal fines, and coal in carbonized form were assessed for possible utilization as fuel briquettes. The fuel briquettes where produced through compaction and its combustion properties were evaluated in an improvised stove system. X-ray florescence spectrometer (XRFS) was used to determine the concentrations of elements present and found; percent fixed carbon was found to be 3.50, 23.81 and 40.42 in used recharge card briquettes, charcoal fine briquettes and carbonized coal briquettes respectively. The used recharge card had the highest volatile matter of 76.17% whereas charcoal fine had the highest ash content; 43.90%. Water Boiling Test (WBT) was carried out on the briquettes and compared with firewood. The used recharge card briquettes (URCB) boiled three liters of water in twenty minutes, whereas firewood boiled same quantity of water at twenty five minutes, charcoal fine briquette and coal briquettes boiled it at 35 and forty five minutes respectively. The briquettes had good strengths using cassava flour as binder and found coal briquettes to have the highest value at 1.2kg/cm2. These properties are indicative of good quality fuel briquettes. Therefore, the conversion of used recharge cards, charcoal fines and carbonized coal into fuel briquettes are a good source of fuel and can be harnessed for this purpose in addition to cleaning out the environment and decreasing deforestation.

 

COMPOUNDING AND RHEOMETRIC STUDIES OF NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATES FILLED WITH KAOLIN AND PALM KERNEL SHELL POWDER

*1K. J. Awatefe, 2O. Akaranta and 2A. James

1Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Agbor, Delta State.

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt.

Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.

*Corresponding author: awatefekj@gmail.com

Abstract

This investigative study involves palm kernel shell powder (PKSP) of 60mm particle size used as filler in comparism to kaolin (a conventional non staining filler), in Natural Rubber (NR) compounding. Filler loadings of l0-60pphr and a control mix with no filler loading were compounded with NR. A laboratory two roll mill was used for the mixing. The theology and cure properties of the compounded mixes were determined at 150°c using an oscillating disc rheometer. The rheograph of all the mixes followed a similar curve pattern. The results obtained shows a decreased minimum torque (ML) with PKSP filled NR mix over kaolin filled NR mix, but increased over the control, an increased maximum torque (MH) stiffness (modulus), stiffness, a decreased maximum cure time of PKSP filled NR mix over kaolin filled NR mix and the control mix, but decreased scorch time of PKSP filled NR mix over Kaolin filled NR mix and the control (zero) filled NR mix. In this preliminary investigated result in terms of processibility and cure characteristic parameters, PKSP filled NR mix have advantages over kaolin filled NR mix and the control as regards maximum torque (MH) stiffness (modulus), cure time (compounding energy savings) and relatively minimum torque (ML – viscosity), however, less advantages in scorch time.

 

COMPARISON OF FUEL OIL FROM THERMAL AND CATALYTIC CRACKING OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHLENE [HDPE]

1S. A. Abdulkareem, 2*N. A. Eleburuike and 3T. O.Amoloye

1Department of Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry,  University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria;

2Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, P.M.B 1601, Ilorin, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: naeleburuike@gmail.com

Abstract

Thermal and catalytic cracking of waste high density polyethylene, HDPE (Discarded yoghurt bottles), using CuO/Al2O3 catalyst at 430-5200C into fuel oils were carried out using a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor. Waste HDPE was cracked into liquid fuel oil, solid residue and gaseous hydrocarbon products. It was observed that catalytic cracking, using CuO/Al2O3 catalyst, had lower degradation temperature, faster gaseous and liquid product generation rate and higher yield of paraffinic hydrocarbons than thermal cracking. In contrast, thermal cracking had higher yield of liquid product and more olefinic hydrocarbons than catalytic cracking. GC-MS analysis results gave the compositions of the liquid products of thermal and catalytic cracking to be in the range of C8-C24, and distributed between paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons.

 

STUDY OF EPOXIDIZED-DEPOLYMERIZED RUBBER VULCANIZATES FILLED WITH CARBONIZED AFRICAN STAR APPLE (CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM) SHELL IN SOME SOLVENTS.

1*A. K. Akinlabi and 2K. O. Koleoso

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

2Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: akakinlabi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Behavioral patterns of vulcanizates from blends of Epoxidized-Depolymerised Low Molecular Weight Natural Rubber (EDLNR) and natural rubber (NR) compounded with carbonized African Star Apple (chrysophyllum albidum) shell (CASAS) and carbon black (CB) were investigated in some solvents like: toluene, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol, petrol, kerosene, diesel and brake fluid.  70% NR and 30% EDLNR served as the base polymer, were mixed with various ratios of carbon black (CB) and CASAS to form mixes A to G in the followingthis order of: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 50% of carbon black. The physical-mechanical properties of all the vulcanizates were first determined before carrying out swelling and solubility measurements. The physical-mechanical properties showed good compatibility of CB and CASAS with up to 10% CASAS substitution giving optimum results. Resistances to solvents were found best with mix B (5% substitution) in most of the solvents, while higher concentration of CASAS (above 15% substitution) in the mixes gave poor results. The results generally have proven that above 10% CASAS substitution with CB will show poor resistances to solvents. 

 

THE EFFECT OF MEMBRANE THICKNESS, NATURE OF ELECTROLYTE AND PERMEATION TIME ON IONIC PERMEABILITY OF NANOELECTROLYTE THROUGH POLYETHYLENE FILMS.

*1C.I Ekeocha and 2B.N Okolue

1National Mathematical Centre, Sheda- Kwali, P.M.B 118 Garki Abuja F.C.T Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: x2xtopher@yahoo.com

Abstract        

Studies on the effect of membrane thickness, nature of electrolyte and permeation time on the permeation of ions through synthetic membranes are contributing to our understanding of the functions of membrane especially in our modern world. Despite intense study over the years, the mechanism by which water and small nanoelectrolyte cross synthetic membranes remain unclear. Previous studies on permeability through membrane have focused on solute characteristics like size, polarity coefficient in hydrophobic solvent.In this study, the permeation of different electrolyte samples with different concentrations through three synthetic membranes of varying thickness and permeation time were investigated using conduct metric technique at room temperature.Diffusion rate of electrolytes (ions) through these membranes were seen to have been affected by the composition of the membrane, electrolyte type and concentration, surface charge of the membrane, permeation time etc. Also, membrane-ion interaction determine the permeability of the counter ions and from the study, the trend generally increased thus; Al3+< Ca2+< Na+ and the 0.1M electrolyte samples of AlCl3,CaCl2 and NaCl  permeate faster than their 0.01M counterpart through the three different membrane studied which have a sequence of increase as membrane G < F < J in order of increasing thickness. The permeation coefficient derived from Fick’s law showed good agreement with the experimental values obtained. However, the above factors should be considered in the use of synthetic membranes for scientific purpose like in the purification of water in harsh environment especially where conventional polymeric membrane cannot be applied due to chemical and mechanical instabilities.

 

 

Comments are closed.