JCSN, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2011

ADSORPTIVE CAPACITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA LEAF POWDER IN THE REMOVAL OF COBALT IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION.

*C.C Obunwo and C. Akassawei

Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Accepted: 26/02/11

Abstractt
solution has been determined. The amount of Co2+ ion removed was determined spectrophotometrically, using UV- VIS spectrophotometer whereby a colour for the filtrate (the residual Co2+ ion solution) was developed with ammonium thiocyanate and ethanol. The results showed that optimal contact time and pH were 60minutes and 7 respectively. The maximum amount of The adsorptive capacity of Mangifera indica (Mango) leaf powder in the removal of Co2+ ions from aqueous Co2+ ion adsorbed (78.0%) was recorded at 180mg/l of adsorbate dosage. Optimal adsorption was also recorded with 0.1g of the adsorbent. The mango leaf powder may thus be a useful cost- effective adsorbent in the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

ASSESSMENT OF POWDERED DIKA NUT SHELL PERICAP (IRVIALGIA GABONENSIS) AS FILLER IN NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDING

*M.D Ayo, L.O. Ekebafe and K.O. Eguare

Department of Polymer Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Nigeria

Accepted:04/05/2010

 

Abstract
This study was aimed at the development of value added product from Dika nut that will be suitable for use in natural rubber processing from Dika nut. The Dika nutshell powder was characterized in terms of loss on ignition, moisture content, iodine adsorption number, oil absorption and pH. The powdered Dika nut shell pericalp was compounded with natural rubber using varying filler loading (unfilled, 20phr, 30phr, 40phr, and 50phr) and the physio-mechanical properties of the vulcanisates were determined. These properties include: tensile strength, hardness, abrasion resistance, compression set, elongation at break, modulus and solvent resistant. The result shows that Dika nutshell filled Vulcanisate has a high reinforcement at filler loading of 30-40phr and at a certain higher level it only acts as diluents. Furthermore, Dika nutshell is grouped as semi-reinforcing filler having the iodine adsorption number of 50.64g/kg, which is about half the value of carbon black.

PROXIMATE VALUE AND MINERAL CONTENT OF THE SHOOT OF BORASSUS AETHIOPUMMART (GIGINYA)

1J.A. Akinniyi  and  *2M. Waziri

1Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri-Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Yobe State University, Damaturu-Nigeria

Abstract
The proximate values and mineral content of the shoot of Borassus aethiopum mart (Giginya) locally called muruchi were determined using standard techniques. Results showed that muruchi has very high carbohydrate (83.00%) and low fat (1.49%); moisture (5.40%), crude protein (4.90%), crude fibre (3.96%) and ash (1.18%). The concentration of minerals in part per million(ppm) as present in the ash of muruchi are K(4600±150.30), Na(3150±9.22), Cu(500±31.05), Zn(350±1.36), Mg(270±23.20), Mn(250±6.23), Fe(240±3.15), Ca(200±2.20), Co(150±1.16), Pb(50±1.30), Cd(20±0.80), Ni(20±0.08), S(16±1.04), P(2±0.09) and Cr, Bi, Mo, As and Sb were not detected. Results showed that muruchi could serve as a supplementary source of carbohydrate but must be consumed with moderation.

GRAFTING OF N,N-DIMETHYLACRYLAMIDE ON GUM ARABIC

*D.E.Ogbeifun,  F .E .Okieimen  and J .M Okuo

Department of chemistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Edo State

Accepted:29/04/2011

 

Abstract
Graft copolymerisation of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide onto purified gum Arabic obtained from  Ketu market, Lagos Nigeria was done in a homogeneous  system using ceric ion initiator  at 25oC . The highest graft level was obtained at 4.0mM ceric ion concentration. The characterisation of the grafted products by means of FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy furnished the evidence of grafting N,N-dimethyl acrylamide onto gum Arabic. The flocculation behaviour of three of the grafted copolymers were studied in 0.25 wt% Kaolin suspension. It was found that the grafted copolymer with the highest molecular weight was the most efficient.

EXTRACTION OF OKRA SEED OIL AND COMPARATIVE CHARACTERIZATION WITH PALM OIL

1N.S.Uhiara, 1J.A. Ayo, 1G. Anayo, 2J. Ndife and 3U.F. Abbas.                                                               Dept of Food Science and Technology, 3Dept of Maths and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi2Dept of Food Science and Technology Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna

Accepted:17/03/2011

 

Abstract
The study investigated the characteristics of Okra seed oil, using palm oil as a reference. The Okra seed oil was extracted by solvent extraction method. Some physical and chemical parameters were analyzed. Okra seed oil showed higher value of refractive index than palm oil (1.468 and 1.464 respectively). The specific gravity values obtained differed only slightly (0.92776 and 0.92253 for palm oil and okra seed oil respectively). Palm oil generated ohmic heat of 37oC while okra seed oil had 34oC at the same voltage of 120v. Palm oil increased in acid value (6.508mgKOH/g) than okra seed oil (5.273mg/KOH/g), varying inversely with free fatty acid (FFA) values which were 0.3942% and 0.9588% for palm oil and okra seed oil respectively, saponification values for palm and okra seed oils were 78.54mgKOH/g and 79.66mgKOH/g respectively while their iodine values were respectively 49.89 and 81.23

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AN UNDER-UTILISED TROPICAL AFRICAN SEED:ADENANTHERA PAVONINA

*1M.N. Ogbuagu, 1S.A. Odoemelam and 2A.O. Ano

1 Department of Chemistry

Michael okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B.7267 Umuahia,

Abia state, Nigeria.

2National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State,

Nigeria.

Accepted:15/05/2011

 

Abstract
The proximate, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical compositions  of Adenanthera pavonina, an under-utilised African seed, have been investigated. Standard analytical methods were employed in the study. The seed has very good values of ash (6.70%), crude protein (26.16%), crude fat (13.70%) but low values of crude fibre (1.90%)  and carbohydrate (51.48%). The minerals; Ca(1.80%), Mg(0.65%),Na(0.58%), P(0.84%) Fe(45.50mg/kg), Mn (32.40mg/kg), Zn(139.60mg/kg)  are quite good and higher than reported values for the most common legumes. The Na/K ratio (0.537), as well as the Ca/P ratio (2.14), indicates that the seed sample has good health implications. The seed is a good source of vitamin A (3.28mg/kg), vitamin E (16.40mg/100g), riboflavin (0.50mg/kg). thiamine (0.80mg/kg) and niacin (8.40mg/kg) but very poor source of vitamin C (18.60mg/100g).The values of the anti-nutritional principles; tannins (0.02mg/100g), cyanogenic glycoside, as HCN,(0.07mg/kg), phytate (0.14%) and trace amount of trypsin inhibitor have no toxic significance in human nutrition.

CAPACITY OF TERMITARIA SOIL IN REDUCING BIO-AVAILABILITY OF As, Cr, AND Cu IN CHROMATED-COPPER-ARSENATE (CCA) CONTAMINATED SOIL

*D.E. Ogbeifun, B.L. Okenwa, F.E. Okieimen and E.G. Uwumarogie – Ilori

University of Benin, Centre for Biomaterial Research, Benin City.

Accepted:29/04/2011

Abstract
Heavy metals contamination of soils is a widespread environmental problem. Industrialization, poor management of liquid and solid waste and poor soil managements have been implicated for this. In this study we investigated the capacity of termitaria soil to immobilize heavy metals in a soil contaminated as a result of wood treatment using Chromated-Copper- Arsenate chemicals in a nearby plant. Chemical immobilization material, termitaria soil of various concentrations ranging from 5.00gkg-1 to 100.00gkg-1 and 10.00gkg-1 Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate [DAP-(NH4)2HPO4] were used for the remediation studies. Sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the distribution and mobility factor of As, Cr and Cu in the chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil before and after treatment. The termitaria amendment shifted the metal concentrations from the water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound fractions to the Fe-Mn Oxide, organic bound and residual fractions. This suggests that the mechanism of immobilization could be due to the Fe-Mn oxide and organic matter content of the termitaria soil. The mobility factors decreased from (67.14% to 50.34%) for As, (21.95% to 13.47%) for Cr and from (21.95% to 13.47%) for Cu as amendment material increased from 0.00gkg-1 to 100.00gkg-1. 10.00gkg-1 DAP amendment reduced the mobility factors from 69.14% to 22.69% for As, 21.95% to 12.76% for Cr and 14.03% to 5.08% for Cu.
These result shows that termitaria soil has a high capacity to immobilize heavy metals and consequently reduce their bioavailability and thus can be used for remediation of contaminated soils.

LEVELS OF Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb AND Mn IN SOME FISH SPECIES FROM OROGODO RIVER, NIGERIA.

1C.M.A Iwegbue, 2F.O Aromoro, 1C.E Iwegbue and 1O. Eguavoen

1Department of Chemistry 2 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology

 Ambrose Alli University P.M.B 14 Ekpoma, Nigeria

Accepted:16/08/2010

Abstract
The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Mn were determined in organs of three fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obsucra and Phractoleamus ansorgii) from Orogodo River after wet mineralization by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations of metals in the livers of three fish species ranged between 1.75-3.50 mgkg-1 Cu; 0.50-2.25 mgkg-1, Cu; 0.25 – 1.50 mgkg-1 Cr; 15.50 – 24.50 mgkg-1 Zn; 25.06-32.02 mgkg-1 Fe; In the gills the mean concentrations of metals ranged between 0.25-0.50 mgkg-1 Cu; 0.63-0.88 mgkg-1 Ni; 0.25-2.75 mgkg-1 Cr; 10.50-33.80 mgkg-1, Zn; 24.38-33.36 mgkg-1  Fe, whereas in the muscles the mean concentrations of metals ranged between 0.50-0.97 mgkg-1, Cu; 0.97-1.29 mgkg-1 Ni; 0.25-1.45 mgkg-1 Cr; 2.27 – 18.70 mgkg-1 Zn; 19.03-23.06 mgkg-1 Fe.  The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Mn three fish species were less than 0.01 mgkg-1.

DETERMINATION OF SILICA CONTENT OF RICE HUSK ASH AT VARIOUS COMBUSTION TEMPERATURES AND TIME USING PARTICLE – INDUCED X-RAY EMISSION (PIXE) SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUE

*1C. D Igwebike-Ossi and  2J. A. Ibemesi

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Accepted:13/02/2011

Abstract
Rice husks were subjected to controlled incineration in a muffle furnace at varied temperatures and time in the range 400 – 10000C and 1-6hrs respectively, to obtain rice husk ash (RHA) samples. The silica contents of the ash samples were determined using the relatively new, and highly sensitive analytical technique, particle – induced X -ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The silica (SiO2) content of the ash was found to be in the range of 68-91%. The results indicate lower silica contents at lower incineration temperatures (400 to 6000C) at shorter combustion time of 1 to 4hrs while higher silica contents were found at increased combustion time of 5 to 6hrs and at higher temperatures (700 to 9000C). Above 7000C, prolonged combustion time of 5 – 6hrs had little or no effect on the silica yield

.

HEAVY METAL SPECIATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN MESH SIEVED SOIL PROFILES

*L. Luke, N. Ukiwe and C. I. Iwu

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

Accepted:16/04/2011

Abstract
The concentration of heavy metals (HM) in varying mesh sieved soil profiles was studied. Using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, investigation revealed that for mesh sieve size of 2000, 1500, 500, 250, and 150 mm, the concentration (mg/l) of HM (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Fe ) was highest in Fe (29.9286 mg/l) in the 1500 mm mesh sieve and lowest with Cd (0.0112 mg/l) mesh sieve respectively. Fe was overall highest in all mesh size totaling (17.7192, 29.9286, 14.4674, 11.7150, and 9.6186 mg/l) in the above order of sieve size. While in the same order of mesh sieve size Cd was overall lowest totaling 0.0223, 0.0524, 0.0464, and 0.0171 mg/l respectively. No trend was observed in HM occurrence with respect to mesh size.

ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PLUMERIA RUBRA FROM PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA.

*G. U. Obuzor and H. C. Nweke

Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt

Rivers State. Nigeria

Accepted:14/03/2011

Abstract
The chemical composition of the essential oil Plumeria rubra (reddish-orange) was analyzed by gas chromatography and forty–one components were identified: nine alkanes (51.19%), three monoterpene alcohols (26.93%), an alkene (5.86%), an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (1.28%), an organic alcohol (1.34%) and thirty-six traces.  The predominant constituent of the oil is an alkane heneicosane (19.15%) while the other constituents of the essential oil in order of increasing concentration are nonadecane (15.63%), citronellol (14.63%), geraniol (9.17%), tricosane (6.06%), nonadecene (5.86 %), eicosane (3.22%), nerol (3.13%), pentacosane (2.63%), benzyl alcohol (1.34%), farnesol (1.28 %), heptacosane (1.28%), tetratriacontane (1.11%), octacosane (1.06%) and nonacosane (1.05%).

PHYSIO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF COMMIPHORA KERSTINGII OIL AS A BIODIESEL

*1D. Kubmarawa, 2M. E. Khan, 1I. I. John and 1H. Madaki

1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.2076, Yola, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemistry Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Accepted:12/01/2011

Abstract
Commiphora kerstingii (bark) oil was obtained by transesterification with methanol and ethanol and its physiochemical and fuel properties investigated. The physicochemical characteristics were also evaluated. The saponification value of the oil was high (326.783m KOH), suggesting that it is suitable as industrial oil for soap production. This therefore excludes it from the edible oils. The iodine value falls within the range of non drying oils (69.02g-100g-1 of oil); with a low degree of unsaturation indicating that they could be used in conjunction with amino-resin as plasticizers. The viscosity and the specific gravity of the oil fall within the range of diesel fuel with the exception of their methyl and ethyl esters. The flash point of the crude is within the range of automotive gas oil (65OC – 110OC) and that of the methyl and ethyl ester falls within range of house-hold kerosene (45OC – 58OC) and turbine aviation kerosene (38OC – 65OC). Commiphora kerstingii (bark) oil could be, a substitute or an alternative source for automotive gas oil, house-hold kerosene and turbine aviation kerosene.

COMPARISON OF AROMATICS RELEASED VIA HYDROPYROYSIS WITH THEIR SOLVENT EXTRACTABLE COUNTERPART FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBONIZATION COAL TAR AND COAL TAR PITCH

1W. Ivwurie, 2C.E. Snape and 2C. Sun

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, P.M.B. 1221, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria

2Nottingham Energy and Fuel Centre, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD

Accepted:16/05/2011

Abstract
The molecular profiles of aromatics generated through hydropyrolysis with the free (maltene) counterpart for high temperature coal tar were compared with a view to assessing the effectiveness of using molecular information for aromatics released via hydropyrolysis for PAH source apportionment studies. Results obtained indicate that the PAH profiles for asphaltene derived aromatics for all samples have similar molecular distribution since they were all obtained from asphaltene matrix where structural alterations are minimal. They are both dominated by parent PAHs.

EFFECT OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED POWDERED RUBBER SEED SHELL AS FILLER ON THE RHEOLOGICAL, TENSILE AND EQUILIBRIUM SWELLING PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDS

1L.O. Ekebafe,  1M.O. Ekebafe and 2F.A.O Akpa

1Department of Polymer Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, P.M.B. 13, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

2Chemistry Division, Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research, P.M.B 1030, Benin city, Nigeria.

Accepted:07/03/2011

Abstract
The effect of chemical modification of powdered Rubber seed shell reinforced natural rubber compounds has been studied. Compounds were prepared using filler treated with varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution, acetylating solutions and Benzoylation solutions and peroxide solutions respectively. The vulcanization parameters, processability conditions, tensile properties and swelling characteristics of these compounds were analyzed. The fiber reinforcing efficiency of the chemically treated compounds were compared with that of untreated compounds. Compounds containing chemically treated fillers were found to possess enhanced tensile properties at higher filler loading compared to the untreated, with peroxidated fillers showing optimum values.

ASSESSMENT OF EXCHANGEABLE Ca AND Mg IN SOILS CULTIVATED FOR OIL PALM

*E.G. Ilori, F. I. Obahiagbon, B. Imosi, E.Iyare, and B.B. Ilobu

Agronomy Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City

Central Analytical Laboratory, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City

Biochemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City

Chemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City

Accepted:14/05/2011

Abstract
As a result of the importance of essential elements in the physiological processes leading to the final economic product of the oil palm, the oil palm has a large requirement for nutrients hence the nutrient status of the soil for its cultivation must be ascertain. This study was aimed at assessing the amount of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils cultivated for oil palm. The results obtained showed mean levels of 2.07 ± 0.78cmol/kg Ca and 0.93 ± 0.45cmol/kg Mg. There was significant variation in the amount of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soils investigated. The data obtained was used in monitoring the amount of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the oil palm plantation.

SOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF ACID BLUE

29

*A. Giwa, P.O. Nkeonye, K.A. Bello and E.G. Kolawole

1Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Accepted:19/04/2011

Abstract
The photocatalytic activity of commercial ZnO powder and Degussa P25 TiO2 has been investigated under laboratory experiments with acid blue 29 as the model pollutant. Solar light was used as the energy source for the photocatalytic experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, irradiation time and pH, were studied. The progress of photocatalytic degradation of the acid blue 29 has been observed by monitoring the change in substrate concentration of the model compound employing HPLC and measuring the absorbance in UV–Visible spectrophotometer for decolourisation. The photodegradation rate was determined for each experiment and the highest values were observed for ZnO suggesting that it absorbs large fraction of the solar spectrum and absorption of more light quanta than TiO2. The complete mineralisation was confirmed by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and COD measurement.

EFFECT OF DECOMPOSED OIL PALM TRUNK ON SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS

  1. Ederion, M. M., Ugbah, A., Imogie, *E.G Ilori and B. B.Ilobu,

Agronomy Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City

Accepted:16/03/2011

Abstract
The effect of unchipped or unshredded decomposed oil palm trunk on soil nutrient status was investigated. Soil samples were collected from six locations within an Experimental NIFOR Field (31) that was replanted to oil palm in 2005. Analysis of soil samples collected indicated that the unchipped or unshredded decomposed oil palm trunk still had influence on soil nutrient status after five years of felling. The soil nutrient status was higher in decomposed plots than the control without decomposed trucks. The mean nutrient status in decomposed soil were 1.19% carbon, 3.09% nitrogen, 27.07mg/kg phosphorus, 0.57 cmol/kg potassium and 5.01cmol/kg CEC while for the control soil, the mean nutrient status were 1.02% carbon, 0.38% nitrogen, 17.23mg/kg phosphorus, 0.21cmol/kg potassium and 1.84 cmol/kg CEC. However, the pH was more acidic in decomposed soil than the control (pH 5.08 and 6.00 respectively). These results suggest that soil nutrient status can be enhanced through slow release of nutrients from unchipped and unshredded decomposed oil palm trunk.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND SOME HEAVY METALS CONTENT OF RIVERS INACHALO AND NIGER IN IDAH, KOGI STATE.

1P. O. Edimeh, *2I. S. Eneji, 2O. F. Oketunde, and 2R. Sha’Ato

1School of Health Science and Technology, Idah, Kogi State,

2Department of Chemistry and Centre for Agrochemical Technology,

University of Agriculture P. M. B. 2373 Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Accepted:09/01/2011

Abstract
Water samples from three different locations on the River Inachalo and River Niger in Idah metropolitan area of Kogi State were collected and analysed for some physio-chemical parameters, including heavy metals (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for three consecutive months (January, 2010 – March, 2010). The results of the analyses revealed that the two Rivers have the following range of characteristics. Turbidity (3.67 – 9.46NTU), Temperature (20.9 – 21.1oC), pH (6.77 – 7.09), TDS (34.8 49.8mg/L), TSS (0.99 – 2.9mg/L), DO (0.36 – 0.63mg/L), BOD (1.81 – 4.9mg/L), Zn (0.92 – 1.0mg/L), Fe (1.88 – 2.0mg/L), Co (0.44 – 0.53mg/L), Se (0.29 – 0.51mg/L), As (0.52 – 0.63mg/L), Cr (0.60 – 0.70mg/L), and Cu (1.04 – 1.24mg/L). Compared with the WHO recommended standards, the results show that all the metals analysed  were above acceptable standards for drinking water except Zn.

SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF N-(THIAZOL-2-YL)-4-CHLOROBENZENSULPHONAMIDE AND ITS NICKEL (II) AND COBALT (II) COMPLEXES

*1L.N.Obasi, 1P.O.Ukoha and 2K.F. Chah

1Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

2Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Accepted:19/04/2011

 

Abstract
N-(thiazol-2-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide [CBSAT] was synthesized from the condensation reaction of 2-aminothiazole [AT] and 4-chlorobenzenesulphonylchloride [CBS] in acetone. Its nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes were also synthesized. Melting point, UV/Visible, NMR, MS and IR Spectroscopies were employed in the characterization of the compounds. Antimicrobial screening of the compounds were carried out in vitro on Staphylococcus aureaus, Candida albicans, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginoisa. The Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) of the ligand and its complexes on these microbes were noted. All the compounds showed significant activities against Staphylococcus aureaus, Candida albicans, Bacillus anthracis and   Escherichia coli, however, the metal complexes  and the ligand have almost equal chemotherapeutic efficacy. Their Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was also determined. The compounds were not active against Pseudomonas aeruginoisa.

PHYTO-REMEDIATION BY MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) OF SOIL CO-CONTAMINATED WITH CRUDE OIL AND CADMIUM

*1E. G. Ilori, 2S. O. Olubodun, 3F. E. Okieimen and 4M. O. Ekebafe

1*Agronomy Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, Nigeria

2Edo State Institute of Technology and Management, Usen, Nigeria

3University of Benin, Department of Chemistry, Geo-Environmental Research Laboratory, Benin City

4Chemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, Nigeria

Accepted:12/05/2011

Abstract
Organic and metal pollutants co-contaminated sites are common and considered to be a more complex problem as both components often causes a synergistic effect on cyto-toxicity. In this study, phytoremediation, a cost effective technology for treating heavy metal or organic contamination is used to investigate the suitability of the technique in remediating a co-contaminated site. A pot experiment by maize was used for the study to investigate the concurrent removal of crude oil and Cd in the co-contaminated soil. The soil which contained no crude oil and cadmium were spiked were 100g crude oil/kg soil and different concentration of cadmium (0, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). At the end of 20 days germination, the amount of crude oil in the co-contaminated soil decreased significantly, accounting for 9.88 – 12.20% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 7.98% in the unplanted soil. The level of residual crude oil in soil was found to increase with increase in level of Cd in soil.Unlike crude oil, Cd cannot be degraded. It was observed that maize can concurrently remove on the average 5.83% – 15.15% of the total Cd amount from the co-contaminated soil with plant and 3.03% from the soil without plant.

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA LINN (SNAKE GOURD) SEED OIL

*F.O.Oketunde, A.T. Tor-Anyiin and J.M. Rebok

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture,P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Accepted:13/01/2011

 

Abstract
Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd) seed oil was obtained from deshelled seeds by Soxhlet extraction with 52.2% yield. Phytochemical analyses of the oil indicated the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides while phlobatannins, tannins, saponins and sterol/triterpenes were absent. Characterization of the oil showed free fatty acid to be 9.4 ± 0.1 (as % oleic), saponification number was 221 ± 3.2 mg KOH/g, iodine number was 128 ± 5.1 g/100g, hydroxyl value was 35.89 ± 5.6 mg KOH/g and peroxide value was 7.4 ± 2.3 mEq O2/kg. The results obtained suggest that this oil has potentials for wide industrial applications such as in soap, paint and nutritional industries.

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SOME IMPORTED CEMENT BRANDS

*V. E. Agbazue and C. A. Chinwuba

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Accepted:21/02/2011

Abstract
Four brands of imported cement (labeled A,B,C and D) were tested for chemical and physical properties, in accordance with Nigerian standard specification. CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, free lime, loss on ignition (LOI) and insoluble residue (IR) were determined. The cement samples were also tested for the following physical properties: consistency, setting time, soundness, compressive strength and fineness. The results obtained were compared with Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) and British Standard (BS.). D and C brands fully complied with the specifications of NIS and BS. B recorded 32% deviation from the minimum stipulated LOI, while A displayed 5.88% deviation from the minimum stipulated 28 days compressive strength, of NIS.

EFFECT OF PALM FRONDS AND COW DUNG BIOCHARS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SOIL SUPPORTING THE OIL PALM

*M.O. Ekebafe

Chemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) P.M.B. 1030, Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

Accepted:23/04/2011

 

Abstract
Investigation on the effect of biochars prepared from palm fronds and cow dung respectively on the properties of soil supporting the oil palm were carried out. The palm fronds and cow dung carbon produced at 300oC for three hours respectively were characterized in terms of pH, attrition, porosity, bulk density, ash content, conductivity, surface charge, nutrient value, yield% and surface area. Soil samples collected were prepared and analyzed for physico-chemical properties in the laboratory using standard techniques. The physico-chemical properties of the biochar –soil mixture samples in which sprouted oil palm seedlings have been planted were measured as a function of biochar type and loading and compared with the values obtained in the control in which biochar was not added. The biochars showed good improvement in soil properties more as a soil conditioner. The results of the soil-biochar analysis at a monthly interval for two months showed that there is increase in the ability of the soil to retain moisture; increase in phosphorus and nitrogen content of the soil; improve soil pH level and increase the growth rate of the oil palm sprout seedlings compared to the control. The potential of the biochar prepared from palm fronds showed a tendency towards prolong effect on the soil properties when compared to that from the cow dung.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STREAM, WELL AND BOREHOLE WATER SOURCES IN EGGON, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

*1M. O. Aremu, O. 2Olaofe, 3P. P. Ikokoh and 1M. M. Yakubu

1Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ado-Ekiti, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

3Sheda Science and Technology Complex, PMB 186, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria

Accepted:11/03/2011

Abstract
Levels of sodium, potassium, nickel, copper, magnesium, iron, calcium, zinc, lead, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, chromium and manganese were determined in samples of water collected from nine sampling points of three different sources (stream, well and borehole) within Nasarawa- Eggon town in Nasarawa State, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Alkalinity, pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, chloride, nitrate and bicarbonate were the physico-chemical parameters measured using standard techniques. The results showed that the Cd contents of all the samples were below the detection limit of the AAS.  The heavy metals were below the deleterious level except Fe, Pb and Se while the physico-chemical properties of the water were within the required standard limits set by World Health Organisation (WHO) for drinking water. However source protection is proposed for these bodies of water for the benefit of mankind because they were not fit for human consumption.

SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF N-(THIAZOL-2-YL) ETHANESULPHONAMIDE AND ITS NICKEL (II) AND COBALT (II) COMPLEXES

*1L.N.Obasi, 1P.O.Ukoha and 2K.F. Chah

1Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

2Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Accepted:14/01/2011

Abstract
N-(thiazol-2-yl)ethanesulphonamide [ESAT] was synthesized from the condensation reaction  of 2-aminothiazole [AT] and ethanesulphonylchloride [ES] in acetone. Its nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes were also synthesized. Melting point, UV/Visible, NMR, MS and IR Spectroscopies were employed in the characterization of the compounds. Antimicrobial screening of the compounds were carried out in vitro on Staphylococcus aureaus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginoisa. The Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) of the ligand and its complexes on these microbes were noted. All the compounds showed significant activities against Staphylococcus aureaus, Candida albicans  and   Escherichia coli, however, the metal complexes showed more chemotherapeutic efficacy than the ligand. Their Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was also determined. The compounds were not active against Pseudomonas aeruginoisa.

EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS FOR THE FORMATION OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTERS (FAEEs)

*1S.M. Tongu, 1E.W. Nsi and 2N.N. Nkpa

1Department of Chemistry, Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria.

Accepted:16/082010

Abstract
The equilibrium constants for the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), associated with diseases characterised by the inability of the heart muscles to contract normally were determined spectrophotometrically by the procedure based on the oxidation of ethanol by chromic acid and the reduction of the acid in the process. Four fatty acids; lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids were esterified against ethanol. The equilibrium constants ranged from 5.20 for lauric to 6.55 for stearic acid. All the determined values of K, showed a shift of equilibrium towards the products. This work has therefore provided numerical indices in predicting the direction and completeness of reactions between aliphatic fatty acids and ethanol, and the risks associated with high consumption of ethanol. The higher the concentration of the ethanol the more likely the formation of the esters.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SOME TRACE METALS IN SELECTED NIGERIAN COALS

1E. O. Ekanem, 2A. Jauro, 2A. S. Sambo and *3A. C. Etonihu

1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria

2 Office of the DG, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Garki- FCT, Abuja, Nigeria

3 Chemistry Department, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

Accepted:04/06/2011

 

Abstract
Nigerian coals from Nasarawa (LOC3), Enugu (ONC5 and EZC8) and Kogi (OKC6) states were analyzed for trace metals using x-ray fluorescence technique. Iron and aluminum were the most highly enriched trace metals in the coals with values of 22.57% and 15% respectively in LOC3. The concentrations of copper 1.76% (in ONC5) and 1.80% (in EZC8) and chromium 0.08% (in LOC3) exceeded both the FEPA and WHO standards for solid environmental pollutants. Nickel ranged from 0.23% (in OKC6) to 0.71% (in LOC3). EZC8 far exceeded the WHO regulation for barium, while LOC3, OKC6 and ONC5 had values within the acceptable limit.

DISSOLUTION KINETICS AND SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF LEAD FROM ANGLESITE ORE

 A.A. Baba, F.A. Adekola, D.P.T. Fapojuwo and F.O. Otokhina

Chemistry Department, P. M. B. 1515, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria.

Accepted:21/04/2011

Abstract
A study of kinetics of the dissolution of a Nigerian anglesite ore by hydrochloric acid has been examined. A detailed investigation on the quantitative leaching of the mineral was also carried out. The effects of some parameters such as acid concentration, contact time, temperature and stirring rate on the dissolution efficiency have been investigated. Experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate is diffusion controlled via hydrogen ion [H+] action. With 2.0M HCl about 87.2% of the ore was dissolved within 120min using particle size 0.05-0.063mm at optimal conditions. The calculated activation energy, reaction order and Arrhenius constant were 18.12kJ/mol, 0.30 and 6.05s-1 for the process respectively. The elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed that the major elements in the ore are Pb(47.42%), S(14.36%), Si(8.21%), Fe(5.27%), Sn(5.11%), Ca(3.45%), Mn(2.07%). The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) also confirmed the ore to exist in a single phase with anglesite characteristics peaks at 27.20 and 36.00 respectively. Furthermore, an extraction yield of about 89.11% of the total Pb(II) by 0.5M TBP in kerosene was obtained from an initial 543.11 mg/L leach liquor at 25±20C and at optimal stirring time of 30 minutes. The enthalpy and entropy change of -27.13kJ/mol and -14.85J/mol were obtained, respectively for the dissolution reaction.

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALLY GROWN VEGETABLE OILS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

1C.N. Anyanwu, 1I.S. Eze, 1O.U. Oparaku, 2G. Braccio, and 2V.K. Sharma

1National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 410001 Enugu State, Nigeria.

2Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development

Trisaia Research Centre, Rotondella 75026 (MT), Italy.

Accepted:28/02/2011

Abstract
Physical properties of some important vegetable oils grown in Nigeria such as Crude Palm Oil, Palm  Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Melon Seed Oil and Castor Oil were studied and considered alongside their yields to assess their suitability as feedstock for large-scale biodiesel production.  Measured parameters including viscosity at 40±2 0C, heating value and elemental composition, all gave promising results.  Whereas the fatty acid compositions of crude palm oil, soybean oil and melon seed oil ranged between 50.0 and 85.0%, castor and palm kernel oils contained less unsaturated fatty acids (10.0-15.5%).  Results  of the analyses show that the oils with the highest potential as raw materials for biodiesel production were those of castor and melon seed, although the availability and present use of the oils need to be given serious consideration.

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALLY GROWN VEGETABLE OILS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

1C.N. Anyanwu, 1I.S. Eze, 1O.U. Oparaku, 2G. Braccio, and 2V.K. Sharma

1National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 410001 Enugu State, Nigeria.

2Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development

Trisaia Research Centre, Rotondella 75026 (MT), Italy.

Accepted:28/02/2011

Abstract
Physical properties of some important vegetable oils grown in Nigeria such as Crude Palm Oil, Palm  Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Melon Seed Oil and Castor Oil were studied and considered alongside their yields to assess their suitability as feedstock for large-scale biodiesel production.  Measured parameters including viscosity at 40±2 0C, heating value and elemental composition, all gave promising results.  Whereas the fatty acid compositions of crude palm oil, soybean oil and melon seed oil ranged between 50.0 and 85.0%, castor and palm kernel oils contained less unsaturated fatty acids (10.0-15.5%).  Results  of the analyses show that the oils with the highest potential as raw materials for biodiesel production were those of castor and melon seed, although the availability and present use of the oils need to be given serious consideration.

EFFECT OF ALKALINE PRE-TREATMENT ON ANAEROBIC BATCH DIGESTION OF ELEPHANT GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum)

*1A.D.Olugbemide, 2M.O.E Ufuah, 3L.C. Igbonazobi and 1J.E Osula

1Department of Natural Science, 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology and 3Department of Polymer Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State.

Accepted:15/04/2011

Abstract
In the process of anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass such as Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) to biogas, a pre-treatment is required to break the lignocellulosic biomass structure. This work presents biogas production from Elephant grass pre-treated with calcium hydroxide at various concentrations (1-5%) for three days. The anaerobic digestion was carried out for 30 days at ambient temperature. Based on preliminary studies carried out, biomass-water ratio of 1:4 was used for all the experiments. The untreated Elephant grass produced 1980ml at the expiration of the experiment. For the pre-treated samples, 4% concentration produced the highest value of 2770ml followed by 1330ml produced by 3% concentration. The least yield (230ml) was observed in 2% concentration. Biogas production started on day two in 4% set-up compared to 7 days lag phase observed in the untreated sample which further  confirmed the significant impact of alkaline pre-treatment.

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA SEED OIL

*A. Jauro, K. C. Oshieke and H. M. Adamu

Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Accepted:11/05/2011

 Abstract
Petroleum ether was used in extracting the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla (African Oil Bean) seed oil (PMSO) and quality of the extracted oil was assessed. The moisture content, oil yield, specific gravity, viscosity, refractive index, pH, acid value, iodine value, peroxide and saponification values were found to be: 7.14%, 53.20%, 0.9004, 11.80 – 12.10mm2/s, 1.4625, 6.55, 0.476mgNaOH/g of oil, 116g/100g oil, 0.16mEq/kg and 176mg KOH/g respectively. The results obtained revealed that the oil is of good quality and could be suitable for use in cooking, soap and paint making, lather shaving, in creams and as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

EMPIRICAL QUANTIFICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN SOFT DRINKS USING CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT

*1J. T. Barminas, 2S. P., Zira,  1C. Milam and 3K. Babagana

1Department of Chemistry Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry Adamawa State University, P. M. B. 25 Mubi, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, PMB106, Maiduguri, Nigeria

Accepted:11/02/2011

Abstract
Ascorbic Acid (AA) Concentrations in various fruits juice drinks were determined using conductivity technique that utilized potassium iodate (KIO3) as an oxidizing agent.  This method is based on derived empirical equations relating conductivity to concentration of ascorbic acid in solution. In testing this procedure, soft drinks were investigated. These included citrus fruit juice, blackcurrant and peach drink, pineapple and coconut nectre orange juice drink (powder), orange flavoured drink (powder), mango flavoured drink (powder), and strawberry drink. The results show that the proposed method was sensitive, simple and reproducible (RSD between 0.75−5.02%, n= 10). The method also showed good results based on the recovery tests performed using four soft drinks.

EFFECT OF UREA AND MELAMINE BASED PRECONDENSATES ON THE CREASE RECOVERY PROPERTY OF CELLULOSE

 N.S. Gin1*, K.A. Bello2, A.Q. Ibrahim3 and D. E. A. Boryo4

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology

Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, P.M.B.0094, Bauchi, Nigeria.

2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

3Enviromental Management Technology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,

P.M.B.0248, Bauchi,Nigeria.

4Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

Accepted:08/03/2011

Abstract
Mono to tetra methylol urea and mono to hexa methylol melamine resins were synthesized as series of precondensates. The synthesis was carried out with KH2 PO4 as catalyst at 400C and pH of 7.5-8.5 for 15 hours and 1-2 hours respectively for urea and melamine formaldehyde derivatives. Cotton fabric was purified and resinated at varying concentrations of 2-10% resins using the padding cure method. The crease recovery property of the resinated fabric was evaluated in accordance with British Standard Specification using Shirley Crease Recovery tester. The results obtained revealed increase in dry  crease recovery angles (DCRA) and the wet crease recovery angles (WCRA) of the treated cotton fabrics  with increase in concentration of resins, and also the degree of methylolation. The DCRA and WCRA for the methylol urea derivatives attained maximum values of  69.50 and 54.00 respectively. The methylol  melamine derivatives revealed maximum values of 80.50 and 75.00 respectively for DCRA and WCRA.This can be concluded that maximum improvement in the crease recovery angles after pretreatments can be attended at the tetra and hexa urea and melamine formaldehyde treatment respectively

REACTIVE BLENDING OF UREA FORMALDEHYDE AND POLYETHYLENE WASTE: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESSING VISCOSITY.

S.A Osemeahon and  C. A.Archibong

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria

Accepted:22/02/2011

 

Abstract
In this work, the effect of urea formaldehyde (UF) viscosity on a composite derived from reactive blending of UF with polyethylene (PE) was investigated. Some physical properties of the urea formaldehyde-polyethylene (UF/PE) obtained at different UF viscosities (13.60-27.60 mPa’s) were evaluated. The melting point, refractive index, density and formaldehyde emission were found to increase with increase in UF viscosity while the dry time, moisture uptake and elongation at break were found to decrease with increase in UF viscosity. UF viscosity below 24.04 mPa.s was found to produce (UF/PE) blend soluble in water and beyond this value the  composite became insoluble in water. Thus processing of (UF/PE) blend for emulsion paint formulation could be suggested below this viscosity level. The result obtained from this experiment will offer formulator different options and to control formulation processes towards developing a paint binder for emulsion paint formulation from (UF/PE) blend, which may be acceptable to the coating industry

EQUILIBRUIM CONSTANT CONVERSION IN REAL-GAS REACTIONS BY EQUATION OF STATE METHODS

1K O Monago and 2C. Otobrise

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P M B 5323,

Port Harcourt

2Department of Chemistry, Delta State University,  P M B 1,  Abraka,  Nigeria.

Accepted:21/02/2011

Abstract
Values of equilibrium constant (K) and conversions were calculated in two real-gas reactions using the Peng-Robinson and Lee-Kesler equation of state (EOS) methods. The reactions we considered are the syntheses of methanol and ammonia. For the Peng-Robinson EOS, calculated K may be considered independent of pressure and calculated conversions in perfect agreement with reference data up to only about 30MPa; above this pressure, errors in calculated properties increase with pressure but remain reasonable and superior to predictions from the perfect-gas EOS. For the Lee-Kesler EOS, calculated K may be considered independent of pressure and conversions in perfect agreement with reference data up to about 101MPa. However, over the pressure range covered in this work, the Lee-Kesler EOS is least accurate at about 60MPa.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE EFFECTS OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF VITEX DONIANA SWEET

*1M. A. Tijjani, 1F.I. Abdulrahman and 2U. K. Sandabe

1Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,

2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry,

University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Accepted:14/11/2010

Abstract
Vitex doniana leaf extract was investigated for its chemical composition and some pharmacological activities. The air – dried sample was subjected to gradient extraction using solvents of different polarities. The extracts was concentrated in vacuo and subjected to phytochemical screening. The air dried leaves were ashed, digested and analysed for trace elemental content using atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy (AAS and EES).The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenes, phloba-tannins, carbohydrate, flavonoids and glycosides. Alkaloids and anthracenosides were absent in all the extracts. Elemental analysis of Vitex doniana leaf showed high concentrations of potassium, mangnesium, sulphur, calcium and phosphorus, while sodium, manganese, iron, magnesium and zinc occurred in low concentration. The methanolic leaf extract was observed to potentiante pentabarbitone sleeping time dose-dependently. It also conferred some protection against acetic acid induced pain as well as produced analgesia when pain was induced using heat. The results of this study have shown that the leaf extract of Vitex doniana contains some important phytochemicals and essential elements. Its also exhibits some pharmacological efficacy as observed on its effect on potentiating pentobarbitone sleep and  analgesia.

Quality characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo L) Seed Oil

1O.J. Abayeh, *1A. Ismail and 2O.M. Abayeh

1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria.

2Industrial Training Fund [ITF], Training Division, Bauchi. Nigeria

Accepted:13/04/2011

Abstract
In this paper Pumpkin [Cucurbita pepo] seed oil was extracted with petroleum ether [40-600C] and the oil characterized in other to optimize its utilization. The oil seed was found to have on the average a moisture content of 7.95%. On a dry matter basis the oil content was within the range 47-48%. The other oil quality characteristics of the seed oil were iodine value (I.V) 109.5g iodine/100g oil, peroxide value (P.V), 25meq peroxide/kg oil, acid value (A.V) 9.43mg KOH/kg oil, saponification value (S.V) 119.21meqKOH/kg oil, free fatty acid (FFA) 4.74% of oil, specific gravity (S.G) 0.90g/ml oil and kinematic viscosity 29.13mm2/s at 30°C. The determined properties of the oil shows that the oil may be suitable for making biofuels

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