JCSN, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009

HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS IN IMO STATE

P.C. Njoku and F.C. Ibe

Department of Chemistry Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Heavy metals (A1, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) accumulation in blood samples of electronic technicians was analyzed. The blood samples were collected from seven volunteers five of which are electronic technicians and two non-electronic technicians that serve as the control. The serum in these blood samples were separated with polite 300 contrifuge and extracted with dropping pipette. The concentrations of these metals in the samples were determined with solar AAS 969. Aluminium was detected in all the blood samples analyzed and range between 0.4589 – 1.624mgdm-3. The concentration was however less in the control. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.0008 – 0.0101mgdm-3 and was not detected in one of the volunteers and the control samples. Cadmium ranged from 0.058 – 0.0072mgdm-3 and was also not detected in the control. Significant concentration of copper was detected in all the sampled blood and ranged between 1.896 – 0.412mgdm-3. The lead result was between 0.0102 – 0.0051mgdm-3. Mercury was not detected in any of the blood sampled. Analysis of variance showed significant different (p ≤ 0.05) in the accumulation of the metals studied between the volunteers of the electronic technicians and non electronic volunteers. The concentration however falls below the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit except for one of the volunteers that was above WHO standard for copper.

 

CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN A SPIKED SOIL IN THE VICINITY OF THE BENUE INDUSTRIAL LAYOUT AND ASSESSMENT OF UPTAKE BY MAIZE (Zea mays L)

 R.A. Wuana1,*, F.E. Okieimen2 and D.A.T. Iorhemen1

1 Benue State University, Department of Chemistry, P.M.B. 102119, Makurdi, 970001, Nigeria.

2 University of Benin, Department of Chemistry, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.

(Received: 30th May, 2008; Accepted: 6th October, 2008)

Abstract

A sequential chemical speciation procedure was used to predict the degree of incorporation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in spiked samples of a soil collected from the vicinity of the Benue Industrial Layout. The uptake (bioaccumulation) of these heavy metals by maize (Zea mays L.) was also investigated. Soil samples were spiked by the ex – situ addition of metal solutions singly or quintuply, followed by incubation for one month. Pseudototal (HNO3 – H2O2 extracted) metal concentrations (mg/kg) in the parent soil were: Ni(0.08±0.02), Cd(0.12±0.11), Zn(0.50±0.05), Cu(1.00±0.10) and Pb(1.30±0.03). In singly spiked soils, pseudototal concentrations (mg/kg) were: Ni(435.5±0.90), Cu(500.0±0.10), Zn(379.0±1.10), Cd(337.2±2.30) and Pb(291.0±1.90); while in the quintuply spiked soils, corresponding concentrations (mg/kg) were: Ni(437.5±0.50), Cu(499.8±0.30), Zn(375.9±0.80), Cd(339.2±1.50) and Pb(291.7±1.30). Sequential extraction partitioned the metals among six operationally defined fractions: F1(water – soluble), F2(exchangeable), F3(carbonate – bound), F4(oxide – bound), F5(organic matter – bound), and R(residual). The sums of the metal fractions, [F1+ F2 + F3 + F4 + F5 + R] (mg/kg soil) in the singly spiked soil samples were: Ni(433.70), Cu(495.80), Zn(378.90), Cd(335.00) and Pb(288.00); while in quintuply spiked samples these were: Ni(434.70), Cu(499.80), Zn(375.90), Cd(339.20) and Pb(291.00), all in mg/kg. The distribution patterns of the metals based on the mobility factor, Mf showed values high enough interpretive of the relatively high lability and bioavailability of the heavy metals in surface soils. Pot experiments using maize showed that the uptake of all heavy metals increased linearly with time. There was reduced metal uptake in quintuply spiked soils relative to singly spiked samples due to the competitive interactions among the heavy metals.

Keywords: Chemical speciation, heavy metals, spiked soil, maize.

 LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SOILS IN THE VICINITY OF ASHAKA CEMENT FACTORY, GOMBE STATE NIGERIA

H.M. Maina, J.T. Barminas and I.I. Nkafamiya

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Yola. Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Received: 18th January, 2008; Accepted: 6th October, 2008)

Abstract

The levels of some heavy metals in soil collected at the vicinity of Ashaka Cement Factory was analysed for heavy mental using high-resolution energy dispersive x-ray spectrophotometer integrated with computer system. Samples were obtained along Northeast and southwest of the factory where dust deposition is expected to be significantly high. due mainly to the effect of seasonal westerly and easterly winds. Samples were also collected in the non-wind directions of northwest and southeast for comparison with values obtained in the wind directions. The mean concentration of most of the elements was 2-10 folds greater in order of magnitude than the levels expected in unpolluted soils. Levels reported had an abundance order of: Mn > Cu > Zn > Pb. All the metals studied indicate significant increases in soil as one moves away from the factory along the wind directions with highest concentrations at about 5 to 10km. There was no significant pattern along the non-wind direction for all the metals. There was an relatively levels of heavy metals on top soil but decreased with depth although such pattern was less pronounced in the non wind directions.

 

ISOLATION AND DERIVATISATION OF GOSSYPOL FROM COTTONSEED (Gossypium hirsutum) AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES

O.T. Asekun 1*, S.O. Okoh 2, L.A.J. Shittu 3 and K. Arile 3

1Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

2Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (FIIRO) Lagos, Nigeria.

3Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

(Received: 28th June, 2008; Accepted: 6th October, 2008)

Abstract

Gossypol a polyphenolic, binaphthyl disesquiterpene is an abundant but toxic component of cottonseed. Early interest in gossypol centered on its toxicity, but more recently interest has developed in its possible usefulness as a drug. Gossypol is a natural racemic mixture, however the biological activities could be linked to the (-)-enantiomer.

Gossypol was isolated from cottonseed with a yield of 0.65%w/w. It was derivatised into gossypol acetate (0.53%) and methoxy gossypol (0.78%). The three compounds were analysed with FTIR, UV and HPLC.

The UV absorption of gossypol was found at 276, 279, 360, 363 and 366 nm. The presence of 354 and 340 nm in the spectrum of the tetramethoxy gossypol derivative indicates the presence of the aldehyde group at an ortho position relative to a hydroxyl group. Detailed results of the infrared spectral studies of gossypol and derivatives showed the presence of a band at 1605 cm-1 attributed to the aldehyde. The wave number is lower than for most aromatic aldehyde absorptions, due to the hydrogen bond formed with the ortho hydroxyl group. The retention time of gossypol when analysed with HPLC was 2.48 minutes, this is comparable to the retention time of the standard gossypol.

Gossypol and it derivatives were tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for antibacterial activities. The results reveal that gossypol and two of its derivatives, gossypol acetate and tetramethoxy gossypol possessed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms.

 

BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THE ROOT BARK OF Psorospermum corymbiferum

M.F. Zubair1,a, N.O. Olawore2 and I.A. Oladosu3

1Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin

2Department of Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho

3Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

(Received: 5th February, 2008; Accepted: 21st October, 2008)

Abstract

The root-bark of Psorospermum corymbiferum was screened for its chemical and antimicrobial properties. Terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, resin, sterol, carbohydrates and glycosides were implicated. The crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform and ethylacetate extracts had inhibitory effects on Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus aureus and Candida alblican. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of the crude extracts were determined for the various organisms. The LC50 values obtained (> 1000) from brine shrimp cytotoxicity also indicate that the plant extract is not toxic. The bio-active compounds identified could have accounted for the therapeutic properties of the root bark of Psorospermum corymbiferum.

 

THE PREPARATION OF ALKYD BASED PAINT USING RED EARTH AND EGGSHELL AS PIGMENTS

  1. Osabohien

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

(Received: 25th June, 2008; Accepted 28th October, 2008)

Abstract

Alkyd paint was prepared using locally sourced red earth (RE) and eggshell (EGS) as pigment and extender pigment respectively. The pigments were characterized in terms of moisture content, loss on ignition, silica content and metal oxides. The paint was applied to substrates such as wood, brick, asbestos, metal and glass. Tests such as viscosity, pH, drying time, hardness, weathering and chemical resistances were carried out on the paint. The paint when evaluated showed satisfactory performances as compared with a commercial paint of similar composition.

 

PHYSICO - CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL PALM SLUDGE AND RECEIVING RIVERS

S.A. Akinyele1, K.O. Ipinmoroti2, O.O. Ajayi2 and A.F. Aiyesanmi2

1Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State

(Received 18th August, 2008; Accepted: 4th November, 2008)

Abstract
Oil Palm sludge from two processing companies were collected and analysed with a view to finding its potential and environmental impact on receiving water bodies. Water samples receiving the sludge were collected from the upstream and down stream over a distance of 200m at 50m interval and their physico-chemical properties were investigated. Results obtained show that the sludge B00 ranged between 983.73 and 1077.85mgL-1, COD is between 1643.78 and 1741.63 mgL-1, oil and grate is 7.40 and 10.00 mgL-1, while Cr and Ni were not detected in the ash, sodium recorded the highest value of 841.00 mgL-1

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OILS FROM ORANGE (Citrus sinensis), LEMON (Citrus limon), AND LIME (Citrus aurantifolia) SEEDS

D.C. Nwokonkwo

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

Mirinkwa@yahoo.com

(Accepted: 13th November, 2008)

Abstract

Dried known weights of orange, lemon and lime seeds were extracted using n-hexane to give dark golden oils respectively. The gas chromatography revealed fatty acids; a higher proportion of linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, myristoleic acid and lauric acid. The infrared (IR) showed absorption bands at 3400cm-1, 3000cm-1; 2800 – 2920cm-1, 1740cm-1, and 1430 – 1480cm-1, significant for 0 – H bonds, C=0 bonds of carboxylic acids and methylene groups. The UV analysis showed absorption at wavelengths 268nm, 270nm and 286nm, indicative of conjugated double bonds. The physiochemical analysis revealed acid values of 2.92%, 1.20%, 1.30%; iodine values of 112.0, 114.20 and 120.30; saponification values of 164.38mg/KOH, 176.83mg/KOH and 174.08mg/KOH respectively. These oils could be used as vegetable oils or industrial blends for cosmetics, paints, plastics, pharmaceuticals and resins; the hexane – extracted oils amounted to 40.83%, 32.96% and 39.53% for orange, lemon and lime seeds respectively.

 

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF CITRIC ACID AND METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CABBAGE STAR LEAF ON CRUDE PALM KERNEL OIL

J.O. Arawande* and A.S. Abitogun

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

(Received: 18th August, 2008; Accepted: 3rd December, 2008)

 

Abstract

The methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of cabbage star was examined for antioxidant activity at varying concentration (0.02 – 0.10%) on crude palm kernel oil. The result obtained was compared with varying concentration (0.02 – 0.06%) of Citric Acid (CA) on the same crude palm kernel oil. The antioxidant activities of the extract and citric acid were monitored by determining the Free Fatty aid (FFA), Acid Value (AV) and Peroxide Value (PV) of the oil samples fortnightly for a period of four months. The results indicate that MLE of cabbage star at levels of 0.02 to 0.08% concentrations inhibit hydrolytic rancidity more than 0.02 to 0.06% CA in crude palm kernel oil. 0.02% MLE reduces oxidative rancidity more slightly than 0.02% CA in crude palm kernel oil

 

THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF SOME AFRICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

  1. Kubmarawa1*, M.E. Khan2, M. Mtswenem3, A. Uwemedimo4, P.G. Timi5; M. Hassan6 and R. Atiko7

1, 3, 4, 5, 6 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.2076, Yola, Nigeria.

2, 7 Department of Chemistry Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

(Received: 18th August, 2008; Accepted: 5th December, 2008)

Abstract

Ethanol and Water extracts from the roots, stem –bark and leaves of three indigenous plants (Butyrospemum paradoxum, Detarium microcapum and Anogeissus leiocarpus), locally reputed for their treatment of diarrhea and dysentery were phytochemically screened and tested for their biological activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, and Escherichia coli. All fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity using the disc-diffusion method. Ethanol extract was positive for all bioactive compounds except resin. While the water extract was negative for alkaloids. The ethanol extract was active on most of the pathogens, but most of the microbes developed resistance against the water extract. This confirms that Butyrospemum paradoxum, Detarium microcapum and Anogeissus leiocarpus contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic and prophylactic significance and thus could be promissory candidates for drug development and validates   their folkloric claim. Further analyses could pave way for new discovery (Drug) as phyto-therapeutic agents against bacterial and fungal infections

 

THE NUTRIENTS VALUE OF BREAST MILK AND SOME INFANT FORMULAE

  1. Erhinyodavwe1, R.O. Egbele1, O. Idolor2 and U. Ugbune1

1Department of Chemistry, Delta State College of Physical Education, Mosogar.

2 Department of Home Economics, Delta State College of Physical Education, Mosogar.

(Accepted: 11th December, 2008)

 

Abstract

This analysis was actually carried out with respect to the Require Daily Dietary Allowance (RDDA) for nutritional values for babies’ growth and development.

Breast milk sample collected was adequately analysed as well as five different brands of infant formulae in order to evaluate their nutritive properties. The result from breast milk shows that carbohydrate content is 49.40 – 51.64%; low ash content, ranging from 2.00-3.10%; high moisture content of 20.0-21.31%; high protein content of 19.0 – 20.1%; and low fat content, 4.54 – 5.04%. In contrast infant formulae has carbohydrate content 49.54-67.30%, ash content, 2.00 – 3.10%; fat content, 10.00 – 28.11%; protein content, 9.27-19.16%, ash content 3.4-5. 01%, moisture content ranging from 2.00-3.10%, protein content, 9.27-19.16% and fat content, 10.00-28.11% for the different brands of infant formulae. The results from these work shows that breast milk contains higher percentage of water than infant formulae. Babies fed on breast milk will get the required nutrients and water.

 

ANTI SICKLING POTENTIAL OF ALOE VERA EXTRACT (II)

Agunna E. Ejele+ and Pascal C. Njoku

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

(Received: 12th September, 2008; Accepted: 11th December, 2008)

Abstract
The effect of fractionated A. vera extract on the gelling time of human HbSS erythrocytes was investigated. The results showed that all the A. vera fractions inhibited sickling in vitro and increased gelling time in a concentration-dependent manner. It was observed that the anti sickling potential of A. vera extracts resulted from the presence of neutral compounds whereas the ability of the extracts to revert already sickled erythrocytes to their normal morphology was thought to arise from presence of alkaloids and / or other basic constituents including amino acids.

RECOVERY AND MECHANISM OF VANADIUM (V) EXTRACTION FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID SOLUTIONS WITH TRI-N-BUTYL PHOSPHATE AND DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID

J.O. Ojoa,*, I.O. Ojob and O.P. Olugbayina

a Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

b Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

(Received: 30th May, 2008; Accepted: 12th December, 2008)

 

Abstract

The extraction of V(V), VO2+, from phosphoric acid solutions with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) has been studied. None of the extractants was found to give a quantitative extraction but the extractions by their mixtures were found synergistic. The study has revealed H2PO4 as a poor counter – ion. An increase in temperature in the range 301-321 K resulted into a general decrease in extraction implying possibly an exothermic process.

With TBP, the extraction is thought to involve VO2H2PO4. nTBP, while D2EHPA is believed to extract majorly polynuclear vanadium cationic species (H2PV10O28+ or HV10O25+) as MR.HR (where M = polynuclear vanadium cation and R = deprotonated D2EHPA), and VO2+ as     VO2R . HR to a minor extent. The proposed polynuclear extraction mechanism is supported by the D2EHPA: V stoichiometric ratio of 1:10 established by slope analysis. Both electronic and infrared spectra have been used to deduce the nature of the extracted complexes.

 

DETERMINATION OF THE SHELF–LIFE AND EXPIRATION TIME OF AMPICILLIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL POWDER

Agunna E. Ejele1 and Nkechi V. Atasie2

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Imo State.

2 Chemical Science Department, Bells University of Technology, Ota. Ogun State

(Received: 12th September, 2008; Accepted: 11th December, 2008)

Abstract
The shelf life and expiration time of ampicllin in pharmaceutical powder have been determined. The concentration of ampicillin in the powder was measured as a function of time. The results revealed that ampicillin concentration in the powder decreased with time although its physical properties remained constant. Data analysis showed that ampicillin in the powder has a shelf life of 4 years and is stable within this period of time.

EVALUATION OF DRUG QUALITY USING IODOMETRIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

A.E. Ejele+, N.U. Anyanwu and C.I. Anunuso

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

(Received: 10th October, 2008; Accepted: 12th December, 2008)

 

Abstract

The concentrations of ampicillin in proprietary preparations of ampicillin capsules obtained in the open market in Owerri, Imo state of Nigeria, have been studied using the iodometric titration and UV–spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the ampicillin capsules contained between 242 – 260mg of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical analysis of the two sets of data obtained from the different methods showed that the experimental t–value (to) was smaller than the theoretical t–value (t.025,v). The hypothesis was therefore accepted that the samples were not significantly different from one another and there was no significant difference between the two methods used in this study

 

SINGLE AND COMPETITIVE AQUEOUS PHASE ADSORPTION OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IONS ONTO RICE HUSK CARBON

R.A. Wuana1,*, F.E. Okieimen2, S.O. Adejo1 and P.A. Mbasugh1

1 Benue State University, Department of Chemistry, P.M.B. 102119, Makurdi, 970001, Nigeria.

2 University of Benin, Chemistry Department and Centre for Biomaterials Research, Benin City, Nigeria.

(Received: 4th October, 2008; Accepted: 5th January, 2009)

 

Abstract

Rice husks carbon was prepared and evaluated for the single and competitive aqueous phase adsorption of hardness causing ions. The precursor (rice husks) was ammonium chloride-activated at 30 ± 1oC for 12h followed by carbonization at 350oC for 1h. The portion of carbon that passed through a 300μm sieve and retained on a 90μm sieve was characterized in terms of percent attrition, pH, bulk density, porosity, surface area and total acidic surface groups. The attributes of the rice husk carbon compared favourably with those of a commercial grade carbon (Thermax). Single solute equilibrium adsorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions was satisfactorily described (but more so for Mg2+) by the single component Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms. Ca2+ ion appeared to be more quantitatively adsorbed than Mg2+during competitive adsorption. Better correlations were, however, found between experimental and predicted amounts adsorbed for Mg2+than Ca2+. The adsorption of both ions obeyed pseudo-second order kinetics and followed the intraparticle diffusion mechanism. These findings are of importance to simple water treatment schemes that utilize the principle of activated carbon adsorption.

 

 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Raphiostylis beninensis (PLANCH) ROOT OIL

M.O. Edema*, O. Iyekowa**, C.F. Nnadi* and K. Eigbadon*

*Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City. E-mail: moedema@chemsocnigeria.org

**Chemistry Department, College of Education, Ekiadolor, via Benin City

(Accepted: 15th December, 2008)

Abstract
Rapiostylis beninensis (Planch) is used locally as a food flavor and in herbal medicine. Oil from the root of R. beninensis was extracted using pet-ether and steam distillation. The oil with sweet smell in dilute solution had a golden yellow colour and an acid value of 6.73mg/g, Saponification value of 196.35mg/g, Peroxide value of 52meq/kg, percentage free fatty acid of 49.36, pH 4.5 and refractive index of 1.6457. The oil was effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and yeast. The oil can thus be used as commercial flavour food and tooth pastes and as possible antimicrobial agent.

IMPROVING THE EFFICACY OF WATER-FREE DERMATITIS OINTMENT

WITH

NIGERIAN BEEWAX

O.C. Eneh

Research Fellow I, Institute for Development Studies, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, P.O. Box 9060, Enugu, Nigeria, Tel.: 08033387472, E-mail: esccha@yahoo.com

(Received: 29th November, 2008; Accepted: 8th January, 2009)

Abstract

Water-free dermatitis ointment, indicated for the prevention and treatment of skin infections and disorders, is imported under different trade names mainly, ‘Whitefield Ointment’, to meet its demands in Nigeria. Earlier work prepared the ointment with some conventional body pomade raw materials, including petroleum wax, which served as mere body and hardener. This work investigated the effects of substituting a portion of petroleum wax for Nigerian Beewax, which not only acted as body and hardener but also exhibited some antibiotic properties to improve the efficacy of the ointment. The prepared sample contained 2.1:0.5 ratio of Nigerian Beewax to petroleum wax as against 0:6 ratio. The therapeutic actions were improved by between 1.46% and 8.80% while the therapeutic periods were shortened by between 0.5% and 65% in the tested cases of cure of eight (8) selected body infections and disorders. It is recommended that Nigerian Beewax substitute for a portion of petroleum wax in the formulation of the water-free dermatitis ointment.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEED OIL OF Parinari excelsa

(SABINE)

Mary O. Edema*, Mabel Oderoha** and E. Daro – Idollo*

*Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City

**Department of Chemistry, College of Physical Education, Mosogar, Delta State

(Accepted: 14th January, 2009)

Abstract

The seed oil from Parinari excelsa was extracted using ether and characterised. The yield was 13.9% w/w of the dried seed. The refractive index of the oil was 1.467. The Iodine value, saponification value, percentage free fatty acid and ester value were 57.17g I2/100g, 187.998mg KOH /g, 48.11% and 139.888mg KOH/g respectively. The seed can be cultivated for use of the oil as flavours in food, soaps and drugs.

 

 BASE LINE AND BACKGROUND LEVELS OF BTEX USING PASSIVE SAMPLERS

  1. M. Okuo*a, E.G. Olumayedeb and E.E. Ukpebora

aAir Pollution Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

bChemistry Unit, LEMS Dept, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B 1019, Owo. Ondo State, Nigeria

(Received: 4th may, 2008; Accepted: 14th January, 2009)

Abstract

Providing and reporting air quality information in a lucid manner is essential in the effective management of air pollution. In this study, background and baseline information on the ambient levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in Benin City, Nigeria have been provided. Passive samplers (ORSA 5 diffusion tubes) were used to trap BTEX in the atmosphere. Measurements were done between February and July 2007, at a height of between 1.5 – 2.0m at each of the sampling sites. (p+m)-xylene was found to be the most enriched of all the hydrocarbon fractions with a mean range of 15.55 – 19.65ugm-3. The mean background concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, (p+m)-xylene and o-xylene were 0.63, 1.87, 11.68, 0.29 and 0.46ugm-3 respectively. Significant spatial variations (P< 0.05) were observed in the hydrocarbon distribution and combustion related emissions from vehicular exhausts, especially heavy-duty vehicles, were identified as the main anthropogenic sources of BTEX in the city. Negative correlation coefficients were calculated for the sampling location. This suggests the importance of other VOCs sources in addition to vehicular exhaust.

 

IMPROVING THE FLAMMABILITY OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS: A REVIEW

L.O. Ekebafe

Department of Polymer Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Nigeria

(Received: 20th November, 2008; Accepted: 25th January, 2009)

 

Abstract

Fire is a worldwide problem which claim lives and causes significant loss of property. The polymers form a major part of the built environment, of the materials around us. Fire safety thus, in part, depends upon those materials. Polymers are “enabling technology” thus advances in numerous technologies depend upon appropriate advances in polymers for success. This review paper is focused on improving the fire performance of polymers through a detailed understanding of polymer degradation chemistry. Highlighted are diverse approaches to enhancing the fire stability of polymers taking into cognizance the environmental and health impact and the future of the subject matter.

DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT’S ESSENTIAL MINERALS IN SOILS OF MAKURDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

M.S. Iorungwa1*, S.G. Yiase2 and D. Ajaga1

1Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Mkar, Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

(Accepted: 26th January, 2009)

Abstract

The concentration of plant nutrients in some soils of Makurdi Local Government Area was assessed. Soil samples were collected from five areas (Council Wards) namely; Agan, Fiidi, Modern Market, Baar and Mbalagh. Organic carbon, pH and the following nutrients were analyzed: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B. The cations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. B and P were determined by colorimetric methods while S was determined by gravimetry. Organic carbon was determined by the rapid dichromate oxidation method. The range of parameters obtained from the analysis were; K(50.00 – 140.00)mg.kg-1, Ca(0.100 – 0.220)%, Mg(0.007 – 0.060)%, Mn(0.100 – 0.500)mg.kg-1, Fe(ND – 7.940)mg.kg-1, Cu(ND – 0.090)mg.kg-1, Zn(ND – 0.360)mg.kg-1, B(4.57 – 6.35)mg.kg-1, S(0.0080 – 0.320)%, P(0.180 – 0.260)%, N(0.750 – 3.080)%. The values were compared with the critical levels separating adequacy from deficiency in maize (Zea mays) which are: 3.0%N, 0.25%P, 1.90%K, 0.20%Ca, 0.25%Mg, 0.25%S, 10mg.kg-1B, 5mg.kg-1Cu, 15mg.kg-1Fe, 15mg.kg-1Mn and 15mg.kg-1Zn. The comparison showed that virtually all the nutrients analyzed for had concentrations below the critical levels for maize implying that, the cultivation of maize in these areas will require fertilizer application.

 

THE REACTION OF INOSITOL HEXAPHOSPHATE WITH HUMAN METHEMOGLOBINS A AND S

J.T. Bamgbose1 G.B. Ogunmola2 and A.A. Demehin2

1.Chemistry Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2.Chemistry Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

(Received: 18th June, 2008; Accepted: 2nd February, 2009)

Abstract

To correlate reactivity with conformational changes, the reduction in sulfhydryl reactivity rate was employed in this study to determine the binding constants of inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) to human methemoglobins A and S at the surface of the molecules while changing the complex at the heme-iron. Our study was carried out in the pH range of 6.0 – 8.0 at three different temperatures (15OC 20OC and 25OC).

The binding of 1HP methemoglobins A and S and their azide derivatives diminishes the 2, 2-dithiobispyridine (2-DTP). Differences in reactivity of the methemoglobins A and S with 2-DTP in the presence and absence of 1HP was observed. These differences in reactivity are explained not only on the basis of a single mutation at the A3 (6) β position in the two haemoglobin molecules but also in terms of other physical properties.

Our result shows that in the absence of 1HP, the CysF9 (93) β sulfhydryl group of aquomethemoglobin A and S are more reactive with 2-DTP than their corresponding azidometHb derivatives. There was also a progressive decrease in the binding of 1HP to all the methemoglobin types with increasing pH. Changes in the pH and consequently ionization of charged groups on the methemoglobin molecules produce different conformational changes in these molecules, resulting in changes in the structures at the 1HP binding site and in the vicinity of the β93 sulfhydryl residue of the aquo and azido methemoglobins.

The dissociation constant obtained in this study ranged from 82 x 10-6 ±2.90 to 167 x 10-6 ±5.80M for aquomet HbA and 43 x 10-6 ±1.07 to 137 x 10-6 ±12.31 for Aquomet HbS. The corresponding values for azidomet HbA and HbS were much higher than these values.

 STUDIES IN THE PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EPOXIDISED FLUTED PUMPKIN SEED OIL

E.U. Ikhuoriaa, I.O. Bakareb and R.O. Ihemea

a Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

bRubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P. M. B 1049, Benin City 300001, Nigeria

(Received: 8th August, 2008; Accepted: 3rd February, 2009)

 

Abstract

Epoxidised fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis seed oil was prepared by treating the oil with performic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid with hydrogen peroxide. The physico-chemical and instrumental characterization of fluted pumpkin seed oil (FPSO) has been carried out for the purpose of its utilization and development of value-added industrially useful raw material. Properties like color, specific gravity, % free fatty acid, acid value, saponification value and iodine value were determined. FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses confirm that FPSO is mainly triglyceride of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Similar functional groups such as carbonyl, olefinic unstaturation, esters, glyceryl, methylene and terminal methyl present in vegetable oils are also present in FPSO. The epoxidised product was characterized for its structure and properties. The findings of this study revealed that epoxidized oil with high epoxide content can be prepared using FPSO.

 

BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN Periophthalmus papillio AND Tympanotonus fuscatus FROM THE MANGROVE SWAMPS OF AN OILFIELD IN THE NIGER DELTA

I.C. Howard1*, U.U. Gabriel (Snr)2 and J.O. Nduka3

1 Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt.

Rivers State Nigeria

3Rivers State Ministry of Environment, Podium Block, Secretariat Complex Port Harcourt

(Received: 3rd November, 2008; Accepted: 10th February, 2009)

 

Abstract

The edible parts of Periophthalmus papillio (finfish) and Tympanotonus fuscatus (shellfish) inhabiting the mangrove swamps of Bukuma oilfield and the sediments thereof in the Niger Delta area, were analysed for Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometeric method. The mean levels (mg/g dry wt.) in the finfish ranged from Zn: 3.0 ±1.5; Pb: 0.24±0.15; Cd: 0.04±0.02; Cu 0.14±0.08 to Ni: 0.11±0.09; that of the shellfish are Zn: 2.52±0.9; Pb: 0.34±0.12; Cd: 0.04± 0.02; Cu: 0.51±0.2 and Ni: 0.16±0.08 while that of the sediment are Zn: 1.70 ± 0.13; Pb: 0.245±0.01; Cd: 0.092±0.02; Cu: 0.210±0.02, and Ni: 0.187±0.02.   Apart from Cu that varied distinctly (P<0.05) between both tissues (T. fuscatus > P. papillio), all other metals do not; though they accumulated more in the periwinkle tissues implying that T. fuscatus is a better biomonitor than P. papillio. The various significant correlation coefficients of the metal pairs – Cu-Pb, Cd-Pb, Cu – Cd and Cu – Zn in the finfish and shellfish implies that the uptake mechanism for these metals may be the same in both organisms. Generally elevated metal levels in both organisms were recorded at the stations with wellheads, implicating oil-related activities as the main source of contamination. Although the levels of heavy metals in the edible parts of P. papillio and T. fuscatus may not pose any health risk to consumers, as they were lower than WHO recommended levels in finfish for human consumption, there is need to check further contamination of the environment so as not to endanger the health of the populace that heavily depend on these species as sources of protein.

 

LOCAL SOURCING OF NON – WOOD PULP PLANTS FOR PAPER – MAKING

H.O. Chibudike and J.S. Udohitinah

Chemical and Fibre Technology Division, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (F.I.I.R.O.), Lagos, Nigeria

(Received: 2nd September, 2008; Accepted: 25th February, 2009)

 

Abstract

The anatomic properties of some non-wood plants and their suitability in the production of high quality pulp and paper materials were investigated.Sample preparation of each non-wood plant specie was conducted in accordance with Standard methods. The moisture content, lignin, extractives, alpha cellulose, and   ash content, fiber dimensions, and determination of cross and Bevan Cellulose were investigated. Pulping operation was subsequently carried out which resulted in the production of pulp and paper samples. Yields were exceptionally high, with good strength properties. The results observed for burst factor and tear index revealed that palm leaf, elephant grass, jute cardis stem and corn stalk, can furnish pulp and paper materials with remarkable strength properties.

Tensile and burst strength increased with degree of fibrillation and with the time of beating , up to a certain point, and then decreased, sharply at first ,and then very gradually until it becomes constant.The results obtained from research investigation conducted affirms that some non – wood plants offer considerable potentials in the production of good quality pulp and paper materials.


ADSORPTION OF Ni2+ and Co2+ IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY RUBBER SEED COAT

J.M. Okuo*, A.P. Oviawe, and O.S. Atasie

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City.

(Received: 7th September, 2008; Accepted: 25th February, 2009)

 Abstract

The removal of heavy metal ions Ni^ and Co24” from aqueous solution using milled rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) coat as adsorbent under different experimental conditions was investigated in this study. The effect of initial concentrations of the heavy metal ion solutions, pH, temperature and adsorbent dose were also studied. It was observed that the rubber seed coat removed more of Ni2+ ion than Co2+ ion in all the adsorption experiments. Optimum removal of the metals occurred at pH 2 and at temperature 20oC. The removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by rubber seed coat fitted into the Langmuir isotherm.

 

DETERMINATION OF PULP, PAPER, AND BOARD-MAKING POTENTIALS OF Rhizophora racemosa (RED MANGROVE)

H.O. Chibudike and J.S. Udohitinah

Chemical and Fibre Technology Division, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (F.I.I.R.O.), Lagos, Nigeria.

(Received: 2nd September, 2008; Accepted: 25th February, 2009)

Abstract

Physico-chemical analyses were carried out on Rhizophora racemosa to determine its moisture content, acid-insoluble lignin, extractives. Ash and the value of Cross and Bevan Cellulose. Subsequently, fibre extraction analysis was conducted using a mixture of Ethanol and Hydrogen peroxide. To ascertain its anatomic properties both wood of Juvenile tree and matured tree were experimentally investigated and compared to determine when maximum fibre characteristics are attained in the wood. The mean fibre length obtained was 1.569mm and this could be passed for a medium length. Temperature coefficient of delignification was determined to be approximately 2.0, indicating that an increase in cooking temperature of 10% results in a doubling of the rate of lignin removal.The resulting pulp yield from the cooking operation averaged 46.21%. The pulp had a very good feel, though poor colour, but had a rapid tendency to felt, thereby making drainage and consequent paper making time long. The slurry of very high consistency was formed, and excellent fiber boards were produced using some adhesives. Paper samples produced from this pulp showed good burst strength, opacity and smoothness. The samples produced illustrates the great potentials to which these fibres normally ignored in Nigeria could be put to economic use.

 

 NATURALLY OCCURRING MINOR ELEMENTS CLUSTER IN COALS FROM BERWICK ON TWEED, ENGLAND

G.O. Asuen1* and O.I. Imasuen2

1Department of Geology. University of Benin. Benin City. Nigeria

2Earth Science Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

(Received: 10th December, 2008; Accepted: 26th February, 2009)

Abstract

Berwick coals were subjected to geochcmieal characterization and evaluation in attempt to search for the possible natural occurrences of minor elements association. Although the coals distinct features are remarkably related to the source material input, the twenty-five (25) coal samples assessed appear to demonstrate a satisfactory evidence for element-clusters in coal. The appraisal for these coals with correlation coefficient data, principal component and factor analyses confirm the occurrence of Zn, Ni, Be, Sr, Nb and Mo as organometallic complexes. While the Cu, Co, Cr and V are suggestive of a mixed source. The occurrence and enrichment of the minor elements Rb and U are suggestive of the authigenic inorganics.

 

THE USE OF NATURAL PROTEINEOUS MATERIAL AS FILLER IN FLEXIBLE POLYETHER FOAM

T.U. Onuegbu, I.O.C. Ekejiuba, P.N. Ekemezie and C.C. Ogbonna

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

(Received: 6th January, 2009; Accepted: 6th March, 2009)

 

Abstract

Flexible polyether foam samples were produced by incorporating varying loads of powdered cattle bone (femur) as filler in the foam recipes. Physico-mechanical properties of the samples tested showed variations in the properties such as density, compression set, elongation-at-break, flammability and porosity. The results of the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis indicated variations in the intensities of vibration bands of functional groups present in the filled foam as compared with the unfilled foam.

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF Enterolobium cyclocarpum SEED AND THE OIL EXTRACT

O.M. Folarin and I.C. Igbon

Chemistry Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria

(Received: 20th December, 2008; Accepted: 6th March, 2009)

Abstract

Proximate analysis of the seed of Enterolobium cyclocarpum was investigated in this study. Elemental concentrations as well as the physico-chemical characteristics of the oil extract were also investigated using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that the seed contained 2.53% oil, 10.87% moisture, 1.15% crude fibre, 30.18% crude protein, 4.71% ash and 50.56% carbohydrate. The results of the mineral elements concentration showed potassium as the predominant element (502mg100g-1) while zinc has the least concentration (0.28mg100g-1). These mineral elements are also present in the seed oil but in trace amounts. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil are: iodine value: 71 gI2100g-1; saponification value: 197 mgKOHg-1; peroxide value: 6meqkg-1; acid value: 5.6 mgKOHg-1 and free fatty acid value of 1.8%. Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed that it is a polysaturate with total polysaturated fatty acid of about 95%. It contained 10 fatty acids, lauric and myristic being the dominant acids with percentage concentrations of 46% and 43% respectively.

ADSORPTION OF INDIGO BLUE DYE AND SOME TOXIC METALS BY ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COCONUT SHELLS

C.E. Gimba*1, Muyiwa Turoti2 , P.A. Egwaikhide3 and E.E. Akporhonor4

1Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria.

3Department of Chemistry and Centre for Biomaterials Research, University of Benin, Nigeria

4Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

 

Abstract

At the activation temperature of 8000C, activated carbons of different particle sizes were produced from carbonized carbon that was previously obtained from coconut shells at carbonization temperature of 5000C. The activating salts were anhydrous FeCl3, ZnCl2, CaCl2 and K2CO3 at varying concentrations. Samples of a textile effluent containing indigo blue dye were used and the levels of dye adsorption were determined by colorimetry. Amongst the activated carbons the results showed that the particle size of 250mm of ZnCl2 – activated carbon was most effective adsorbing the dye up to 98%.

The adsorption of lead (II), cadmium (II) and mercury (II) by the activated carbons was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results show that the FeCl3 – activated carbon was most effective in adsorbing 70% Pb while the K2CO3 – activated carbon was most effective in adsorbing 81 and 83% of Cd and Hg respectively.

 

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION AND BIOAVAILABILITY IN SOILS AND CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta GRANTZ) ALONG WARRI-ABRAKA EXPRESSWAY, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

S.A. Osakwe

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

(Received: 20th October, 2008; Accepted: 10th March, 2009)

Abstract

The levels of Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni in soils and cassava (Manihot esculenta grantz} tubers and leaves along Warri-Abraka expressway weredetermined to assess the impact of automobile emissions on the farmlands. Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were not within detection limit of the instrument used. The heavy meta!s concentrations in all the samples were in the order of accumulation in the soil > cassava leaves > cassava tubers. For all the samples studied concentrations of the metals were distinctly higher than the levels observed in the control site indicating heavy metal enrichment on the soils, cassava tubers and leaves as a result of automobile emissions along the highway. The heavy metals transfer ratios in the plants indicate that the uptake of each metal was generally higher in the leaves than in the tubers. The relatively high transfer ratios obtained show the potential of the crops to bioaccumulate heavy metals from the soil and deploy the metals to their edible parts. Results from the present study do not indicate any serious pollution or contamination risk. However with these relatively high transfer ratios of the metals, the gradual accumulation of the metals in the soils and cassava tubers and leaves overtime, will result to a greater tendency for the heavy metals bioaccumulation which may lead to metal toxicity.

 

 EFFECT OF STOVE APERTURE SIZES ON COMBUSTION AERODYNAMICS FOR EFFICIENT FUEL UTILIZATION

A.C. Etonihu1*and I.O. Akpabio2

1Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

2Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

(Received: 2nd February, 2008; Accepted: 12th March, 2009)

Abstract

In Africa, the utilization of wood fuels through traditional technologies that include stoves, ovens, and kilns are poor in combustion aerodynamics and low in efficiency. Stoves of different aperture sizes were constructed using cast iron to simulate the various designs common in Nigerian markets. 0.2 kg briquette of sawdust and rice husk was loaded into the stoves, and their combustion aerodynamics efficiency was determined using both the boiling test and constant heating methods. The time taken to boil 2 liters of water varied significantly among the different aperture sizes of uniform stoves from 26 to 12 minutes (for sawdust) and 29 to 13 minutes (for rice husk) briquettes, when aperture size was increased from 5 to 15 mm. With sawdust briquettes, efficiencies increased from 26.20 to 35.60% (for boiling test) and 7.58 to 8.89% (for constant heating method), as stove aperture size increased. Similarly for rice husk briquettes, efficiency increased from 26.02 to 34.55% (for boiling test) and from 8.15 to 9.32% (for constant heating). Beside aperture size, there was no significant change in the efficiencies between the square-shape stove C and the round-shape stove D for the same fuel type.

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC MATTER AFFINITY IN A FRESH WATER HARVEY-BEAUMONT COALS FROM NORTHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND

G.O. Asuen* and O.A. Ilegieuno

Dept. of Geology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Abstract

Thirty (30) selected coals samples across Northumberland coalfield were subjected to X-ray fluorescence and Atomic absorption spectrophotometer analytical techniques with the view to determining some minor elements occurrence and concentration in relation to the organic components of coal. These outcrop samples represent the entire Harvey-Beaumont coal seam.

Geochemical features of these coals confirm the occurrence and association of Cu, Ni, Co, V, Be, and Mo, controlled by organic mineralization supposedly in the diagenetic phase. Whereas the significant elements namely Zn, Pb, U and Sr occurring as chalcophiles as toxic metals inhibit mutual co-existence of coal forming plants and so traceable exclusively to the Epigenetic mineralization (extrinsic input). The presence of the minor elements V and Y that are positively loaded with each other in the same component could be partly accounted for as hydrolysate components because of their free substitution possible in the clay lattices

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